GMAT SC KP (4) ZZ

20已有 681 次阅读  2011-01-11 17:40   标签office  不定式 

分词和不定式

1.  –ing分词的功能

1)  作主语:doing ... is / was / did / does ...

2)  作补语:find / keep / have / make + 名词短语 + -ing分词

3)  作宾语:-ing分词既可以做动词宾语,也可以做介词宾语

4)  作定语:-ing分词做定语时,它所修饰的词一般是分词所表示的行为或状态的主体,从逻辑上看似乎是一种主语和谓语的关系

5)  作状语:-ing分词作状语一般放在句首或者句尾

2.  -ed分词的功能

1)  作补语:find / keep / have / make + 名词短语 + ed分词

2)  作定语:-ed分词作定语时,被修饰的词是分词所表示行为的承受者,从逻辑上看,修饰语和被修饰语之间似乎是一种行为与客体之间的关系

3)  作状语:-ed分词作状语时位于主谓结构之外

3.  分词逻辑主语的判断

1)  分词短语在句首作状语时,逻辑主语等于句子主语

2)  -ing短语在句尾

Ø  表示伴随动作、状态、功能,与句子的谓语动作同时发生,逻辑主语等于句子主语

Ø  表伴随结果,整个句子是原因,无逻辑主语,可在分词前加thustherebyin effect等,也可不加

3)  -ed短语在句尾,一般优先就近作定语,修饰名词

4)  介词或介词短语 + -ing分词

in addition to / in / by / without / besides + doing ...,句子

Ø  在句首,逻辑主语等于句子主语

Ø  在句尾,可能是句子主语,也可能不是

4.  分词短语的并列

    -ing分词短语和-ed分词短语可以并列,作定语修饰名词

5.  分词的否定形式

    not doing ... / without doing ... / not –ed ... / never –ed ...

6.  -ing分词的完成时态

    -ing分词的完成时态不能充当名词的定语,必须转换为定语从句

n. + having done ... / having been done ... => n. that ...

7.  定语从句与分词短语的区别

1)  定语从句强调具体的时间、具体的行为,以及动作的一次性;分词短语强调笼统的、不确定的时间,抽象的、客观的、重复性的、多次性的行为

2)  分词短语比定语从句简洁:两者都可以接受的时候,优先使用分词短语

3)  有情态动词的定语从句不能转为分词短语

4)  定语从句转为分词短语不能产生歧义

8.  -ing分词作宾语的动词

1)  acknowledgeavoidadmitenjoyescapesuggestassureadvocateforbidpermitfavorrecommendresistriskinvolvedenyinclude

There is no way to escape doing the work.

2)  give upcredit toaim atcontribute toin contrast tobe supposed toobject tobe opposed toamount tobe exposed/committed/limited/devoted tolead tobe educated tobe/become accustomed/used to

Since the examination is around the corner, I am compelled to give up doing sports.

3)  aid sb. in doingprevent/keep/prohibit/save sb. from doingaccuse sb. of doing

    This device is designed to carry sound or to aid in hearing.

4)  be expert atbe good atcriticize ... forpraise ... forbe capable ofbe busyhave difficulty inhave trouble in

    The leading actor is expert at conveying his role's fine feeling.

5)  GMAT中常用propose doing,较少用propose to do

    I should propose making a change in the plan.

9.  不定式的功能

    不定式在句中可以作主语、表语、宾语、定语、状语和补语。

1)  不定式作主语

不定式作主语时,特别是当不定式短语很长时,往往引入形式主语it,把不定式放在谓语后面:

Ø  It is + 形容词 + 不定式短语

It is beyond my power to sell it cheaper.

Ø  It takes / needs/ requires + 不定式短语

It requires a long time to eliminate the old ideas.

Ø  It is + 名词 + 不定式短语

    It is a shameful thing to have to say.

2)  不定式作表语

在这种结构中,动词不定式用来揭示主语所包含的具体内容。常用的主语有下列名词:

aimtaskdutygoalworkjobpurposemethodproblemeffectactivitymistake

通常译为:“…就是…”,“…在于…”

Our purpose is not only to conquer nature but also to remake nature.

3)  不定式作定语

Ø  要求不定式作定语的名词

wayabilitypowertendencycapacityreasonchancetimemethodattemptopportunitythingworkproperty

To argue in an attempt to come to terms.

Ø  不定式的被动语态作定语

含有“将要”、“有必要”的意思,翻译时可在不定式前加“要”、“待”等词。

To exaggerate the difficulty of something to be done.

Ø  介词 + which + 不定式短语作定语

动词不定式如带有介词,作定语时仍保留介词,常与代词which连用。这种结构仍然是不定式短语,不能视为which引导的定语从句。

He was stumped for words in which to reply.(他被难住了,找不出话来回答。)

Ø  名词前有lastnext、序数词或者形容词最高级作定语时,名词后的定语必须使用不定式

The first scientist to do some research on AIDS

10. 不定式的否定形式

1)  not + 不定式:not 置于带to或者不带to的不定式前,属于一般否定

2)  never + 不定式:never置于带to或者不带to的不定式前,强调否定意义

11. 不定式作宾语

不定式作宾语,不定式的动作往往与谓语动词的动作同时发生。

    affordagreeappear / seemarrangechooseclaimcome(逐渐);electendeavorexpectfailpromiserefuseseekselectthreatenventureofferprefer

    I fail to see the bearing of that remark.(我不明白那句话的真意何在。)

12. 不定式作宾语补语

动词 + 名词短语 + 不定式

adviseallowcausecompelenableinviteinspireconvinceexpectleadrequireuseorder

It was a real job to convince them to drop the charges.

13. 疑问代词加不定式

whether/how/when/what/why to do

Sometimes I do not know how to do.

14. 省略to的不定式

1)  动词 + 名词或代词 + do

seewatchnoticespot(认出),hearobserveperceiveoverhearfeelsmellletmake

2)  其他

Ø  make do with/without)(凑合着做)

If we can't get what we want, we shall have to make do without it.

Ø  make believe=pretend

Let us make believe that we were Red Indians.

Ø  help to do...

We need someone to help do the repairs.

Ø  rather than do ...

I'll do it all by myself rather than ask someone else to help me.

Ø  all sb. do/did is/was do ...

All I do is dream of you.

Ø  might just as well do ...

You might just as well go as not.(你去也好,不去也好。)

15. 宾语补语后加不定式

find/deem/make it + adj. + to do

I find it difficult for me to explain this to you.

16. 用不定式表达动作的目的

    do sth. to do sth,而不用do sth. for doing sth.

17. too to结构

    to后主动语态和被动语态都可以使用:

too adj. to do

too adj. for sb. to do

too adj. to be done by sb.

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发表评论 评论 (8 个评论)

  • stream 2011-01-11 18:39
    老詹辛苦了!这两天这么忙仍然坚持更新!敬佩!
  • James 2011-01-11 19:12
    stream: 老詹辛苦了!这两天这么忙仍然坚持更新!敬佩!
    很多事情值得坚持
    而且其实没那么难
  • Emma0009111 2011-01-11 20:16
    James: 很多事情值得坚持
    而且其实没那么难
    觉得你有很多地方值得我学习啊。
  • James 2011-01-11 20:22
    Emma0009111: 觉得你有很多地方值得我学习啊。
    每个人都是不同的阿
    大家都有值得别人学习的地方 哈哈哈
  • cqserenity 2011-01-11 20:47
    向您学习!
  • 小兔牙 2011-01-12 09:05
    James: 每个人都是不同的阿
    大家都有值得别人学习的地方 哈哈哈
    HOHO,谦虚了...
    HOHO....其实我也认同Emma的意见。。。
    向你学习....
  • myice 2011-01-12 10:37
    老大,辛苦了
  • chuju 2011-03-15 10:52
    james辛苦了
涂鸦板