分享一篇GMAT阅读解析,非常详细

3已有 529 次阅读  2013-01-15 15:16   标签分享  阅读 
Passage 12
Social learning in animals is said to occur when direct or indirect social interaction facilitates the acquisition of a novel behavior.(作者对social learning下定义)It usually takes the form of an experienced animal (the demonstrator) performing a behavior such that the naïve animal (the observer) subsequently expresses the same behavior sooner, or more completely, than it would have otherwise.(social learning一般采用的形式)One example of social learning is the acquisition of preferences for novel foods.// 作者介绍social learning的内容及形式。

Some experiments have suggested that among mammals, social learning facilitates the identification of beneficial food items, but that among birds, social learning helps animals avoid toxic substances.//总述哺乳动物和鸟类社交学习的区别。 For example(举例,略读), one study showed that when red-wing blackbirds observed others consuming a colored food or a food in a distinctly marked container and then becoming ill, they subsequently avoided food associated with that color or container. Another experiment showed that house sparrows consumed less red food after they observed others eating red food that was treated so as to be noxious.//通过举例两种鸟类,来说明鸟类通过社交学习帮助其避免有毒物质。 Studies on nonavian species have not produced similar results, leading researchers to speculate that avian social learning may be fundamentally different from that of mammals.//总结,研究者认为鸟类和哺乳动物的社交学习不同。


But Sherwin’s recent experiments with domestic hens do not support(负评价词) the notion that avian social learning necessarily facilitates aversion to novel foods that are noxious or toxic. Even when demonstrator hens reacted with obvious disgust to a specific food, via vigorous head shaking and bill wiping, there was no evidence that observers subsequently avoided eating that food.//S团队提出新观点家养鸡中观察者不受指示者影响去避免有毒物质,并举例说明。 Sherwin’s research team speculated that ecological or social constraints during the evolution of this species might have resulted in(因果关系) there being little benefit(负评价词)from the social learning of unpalatability, for instance, selective pressures for this mode of learning would be reduced if the birds rarely encountered noxious or toxic food or rarely interacted after eating such food, or if the consequences of ingestion were minimal(略读,例举发展过程中可能受到的限制). //S团队推测家养鸡可能是受其发展过程中生态或社交的限制,而没有通过社交学习避免不合口味的物质。In a related experiment, the same researchers showed that if observer hens watched demonstrator hens react favorably to food of a particular color, then observer hens ate more food of that color than they ate of food of other colors. These results confirmed that avian species can develop preferences for palatable food through social learning.//S团队通过家养鸡的实验,得出结论鸟类可以通过社交学习发展对可口物质的偏好。


逻辑简图:

第一段:作者介绍social learning的内容及形式。

第二段:

第一层:总述哺乳动物和鸟类社交学习的区别。

第二层:通过举例两种鸟类,来说明鸟类通过社交学习帮助其避免有毒物质。

第三层:总结,研究者认为鸟类和哺乳动物的社交学习不同。

第三段:

第一层:S团队提出新观点家养鸡中观察者不受指示者影响去避免有毒物质,并

举例说明。

第二层:S团队推测家养鸡可能是受其发展过程中生态或社交的限制,而没有通

过社交学习避免不合口味的物质。

第三层:S团队通过家养鸡的实验,得出结论鸟类可以通过社交学习发展对可口

物质的偏好。


1. The primary purpose of the passage is to discuss the(主题题)

(A) techniques used in certain experiments on social learning in birds(没有提到实验技术)

(B) reasons for the differences between social learning in birds and in mammals(文章主题不是讨论原因)

(C) question of how social learning manifests itself in birds(符合原文)

(D) basis for a widespread belief about a difference in behavior between birds and mammals(文中没有讲广泛接受的观点)

(E) possible reasons why birds may or may not learn from each other in a particular way(文章主题不是讨论原因)



2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the experiments on domestic hens conducted by Sherwin’s research team? (细节题,对应文章第三段)

(A) Only a small number of observer hens appeared to learn to avoid food that was demonstrated by other hens to be noxious.(绝对化态度)

(B) Observer hens ingested food preferentially only after numerous instances of witnessing demonstrator hens preferentially ingest that type of food.(绝对化态度)

(C) Observer hens appeared unable to recognize when demonstrator hens found a particular food especially palatable.(错误描述)

(D) Demonstrator hens reacted adversely to ingesting certain novel foods.(新说法)

(E) Demonstrator hens altered their behavior less obviously in response to noxious foods than in response to highly palatable foods.(符合第三段的第一层和第三层信息)


3. It can be inferred that the author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding the results of the recent experiments conducted by Sherwin’s research team?(细节推论题,对应第三段信息)

(A) The experiments demonstrate that social learning in avian species facilitates the identification of noxious or toxic foods.(错误表述)

(B) The experiments suggest that social learning has made avian species less adept than nonavian species at learning to prefer beneficial foods and avoid noxious and toxic foods.(S团队没有对比鸟类和哺乳动物,新说法)

(C) The experiments undermine the notion that most avian species have evolved in environments where there is little benefit to the social learning of unpalatability.(错误表述)

(D) The experiments suggest that the acquisition of food preferences in avian species is largely unaffected by social learning.(错误表述)

(E) The experiments show that social learning in avian species can promote the preferential consumption of beneficial foods but do not support the claim that social learning in avian species promotes the avoidance of noxious or toxic foods.(符合文中第三段信息)

分享 举报

发表评论 评论 (3 个评论)

涂鸦板