全国统一咨询电话:400-6966-260
返回列表 发帖

[推荐]BEE-Background Essay Everyday

African Americans In South

African Americans In South

       As a social and economic institution, slavery originated
in the times when humans began farming instead of hunting and
gathering. Slave labor became commonplace in ancient Greece and
Rome. Slaves were created through the capture of enemies, the
birth of children to slave parents, and means of punishment.

Enslaved Africans represented many different peoples, each with
distinct cultures, religions, and languages. Most originated from
the coast or the interior of West Africa, between present-day
Senegal and Angola. Other enslaved peoples originally came from
Madagascar and Tanzania in East Africa. Slavery became of major
economic importance after the sixteenth century with the
European conquest of South and Central America. These slaves
had a great impact on the sugar and tobacco industries.

A triangular trade route was established with Europe for alcohol
and firearms in exchange for slaves. The slaves were then traded
with Americans for molasses and (later) cotton. In 1619 the first
black slave arrived in Virginia. The demands of European consumers
for New World crops and goods helped fuel the slave trade. A
strong family and community life helped sustain African Americans
in slavery. People often chose their own partners, lived under the
same roof, raised children together, and protected each other.
Brutal treatment at the hands of slaveholders, however, threatened
black family life. Enslaved women experienced sexual exploitation
at the hands of slaveholders and overseers. Bondspeople lived with
the constant fear of being sold away from their loved ones, with no
chance of reunion. Historians estimate that most bondspeople were
sold at least once in their lives. No event was more traumatic in
the lives of enslaved individuals than that of forcible separation
from their families. People sometimes fled when they heard of an
impending sale.

During the 17th and 18th century enslaved African Americans in
the Upper South mostly raised tobacco. In coastal South
Carolina and Georgia, they harvested indigo for dye and grew rice,
using agricultural expertise brought with them from Africa.
By the 1800s rice, sugar, and cotton became the South's leading
cash crops. The patenting of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney in 1793
made it possible for workers to gin separate the seeds from the
fiber some 600 to 700 pounds daily, or ten times more cotton than
permitted by hand. The Industrial Revolution, centered in Great
Britain, quadrupled the demand for cotton, which soon became
America's leading export. Planters' acute need for more cotton
workers helped expand southern slavery. By the Civil War, the
South exported more than a million tons of cotton annually to
Great Britain and the North. An area still called the “Black Belt”,
which stretched across Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana,
grew some 80 percent of the nation's crop. In parts of the “Black
Belt”, enslaved African Americans made up more than three-fourths
of the total population.

Even though slavery existed throughout the original thirteen
colonies, nearly all the northern states, inspired by American
independence, abolished slavery by 1804. As a matter of conscience
some southern slaveholders also freed their slaves or permitted them
to purchase their freedom. Until the early 1800s, many southern
states allowed these emancipations to legally take place. Although
the Federal Government outlawed the overseas slave trade in 1808,
the southern enslaved African American population continued to grow.
By 1860 some 4 million enslaved African Americans lived throughout
the South. Only Southern states believed slavery to be a major,
and essential, economic factor. Whether on a small farm or a
large plantation, most enslaved people were agricultural laborers.
They worked literally from sunrise to sunset in the fields or at
other jobs. Some bondspeople held specialized jobs as artisans,
skilled laborers, or factory workers. A smaller number worked as cooks, butlers, or maids. Slavery became an issue in the economic struggles
between Southern plantation owners and Northern industrialists in
the first half of the 19th century, a struggle that culminated in
the American Civil War. Despite the common perception to the
contrary, the war was not fought primarily on the slavery issue.

Abraham Lincoln, however, saw the political advantages of promising
freedom for Southern slaves, and the Emancipation Proclamation was
enacted in 1863. This was reinforced after the war by the 13th, 14th,
and 15th amendments to the US constitution (1865, 1868, and 1870),
which abolished slavery altogether and guaranteed citizenship and
civil rights to former slaves. Following the Civil War, Southern
states passed laws called "Black Codes". A Black Code was a law which
limited or restricted a certain activity or way of life for the African Americans. Mississippi banned interracial marriages with the threat
of certain death if the law was broken. Other codes restricted where
the Blacks could own land. All were attempts to keep the government
from giving the "forty acres of land" to former slaves. Since a
majority of the Southern population was made of Blacks, whites
feared they would eventually "take over". This led to the brutal
killings of many Blacks by the KKK and other white supremacist
groups. Blacks who tried to exercise power were either killed or
had some other form of physical action taken against them.

Although in 1880 voting booths were open to all, only some Whites
let Blacks vote, usually when this happened, they were watched
under the careful eye of a KKK leader. Sadly enough a Black trying
to pursue his right to vote was often met with death or loss of
income. According to the Ku Klux Klan, they stand for five "simple"
views. The first being "The White Race" being the Aryan race and
its Christian faith. The second, "America First" states that
"America comes first before any foreign or alien influence or
interest". "The Constitution" as they believe should be followed
exactly as written and intended, and is considered by their
group "the finest system of government ever conceived by man". The fourth, "Free Enterprise" was the end to high-finance exploitation.
And finally, "ositive Christianity" was the right of Americans
to practice their Christian faith, including but not limited to
prayer in school.

Preconceived notions are quite arguably the
most widely acknowledged form of racism today. Use of derogatory
terms, such as the quite offensive "n-word" and slang such as
"spook", "porch monkey", etc. are all terms people of all race's
use to refer to Blacks. Even situations can become unnecessarily
frightening because of preconceived notions we have been led to
believe about Blacks. For example, if a white woman has gotten
lost while driving and stumbles into a predominantly "black"
neighborhood, she would be more likely to panic and become
frightened then if she were lost in a neighborhood considered to
be predominantly "white". Fears and ideals such as these have been
instilled in our society for years, which leads to the occurrence
of racial hate. It is obvious that racism still exists in many
forms throughout our nation and throughout the world.
Example of this racism is present in almost every aspect of
society to this day. Although slavery was outlawed in our country
following the Civil War, African-Americans have never been able
to enjoy the freedom that Caucasians have, and probably never
will. Years and years of oppression have led to an
attitude of inferiority by the African Americans that will,
quite possibly, never fade. What humility to society in general
that this institution existed.
\"Our lives are a combination of good and bad, positive and negative.When we focus on the good that is already present, we feel better. If not, we don\'t. Either way, life goes on.\" -- Peter McWilliams

TOP

Civil Rights Movement

               
Civil Rights Movement: 1890-1970

1890: The state of Mississippi adopts poll taxes and
literacy tests to discourage black voters.

1895: Booker T. Washington delivers his Atlanta
Exposition speech, which accepts segregation of the races.

1896: The Supreme Court rules in Plessy v. Ferguson the
separate but equal treatment of the races is constitutional.

1900-1910

1900-1915: Over one thousand blacks are lynched in the
states of the former Confederacy.

1905: The Niagara Movement is founded by W.E.B. du Bois
and other black leaders to urge more direct action to
achieve black civil rights.

1910-1920

1910: National Urban League is founded to help the conditions
of urban African Americans.

1920-1930
1925: Black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey is convicted
of mail fraud.

1928: For the first time in the 20th century an African
American is elected to Congress.

1930-1940
1931: Farrad Muhammad establishes in Detroit what will
become the Black Muslim Movement.

1933: The NAACP files -and loses- its firs suit against
segregation and discrimination in education.

1938: The Supreme Court orders the admission of a black
applicant to the University of Missouri Law School

1941: A. Philip Randoph threatens a massive march on
Washington unless the Roosevelt administration takes
measures to ensure black employment in defense industries;
Roosevelt agrees to establish Fair Employment Practices
Committee (FEPC).

1942: The congress of Racial Equality (CORE) is organized
in Chicago.

1943: Race riots in Detroit and Harlem cause black leaders
to ask their followers to be less demanding in asserting
their commitment to civil rights; A. Philip Randolph breaks
ranks to call for civil disobedience against Jim Crow schools
and railroads.

1946: The Supreme Court, in Morgan v. The Commonwealth of
Virginia, rules that state laws requiring racial segregation
on buses violates the Constitution when applied to interstate
passengers.

1947: Jackie Robinson breaks the color line in major league
baseball.

1947: To Secure These Rights, the report by the President’s
Committee on Civil Rights, is released; the commission,
appointed by President Harry S. Truman, recommends government
action to secure civil rights for all Americans.

1948: President Harry S. Truman issues an executive order
desegregating the armed services.


1950-1960

1950: The NAACP decides to make its legal strategy a full-scale
attack on educational segregation.

1954: First White Citizens Council meeting is held in Mississippi.

1954: School year begins with the integration of 150 formerly
segregated school districts in eight states; many other school
districts remain segregated.

1955: The Interstate Commerce Commission bans racial segregation
in all facilities and vehicles engaged in interstate transportation.

1955: Rosa Parks is arrested for refusing to give up her bus seat
to a white person; the action triggers a bus boycott in Montgomery,
Alabama, let by Martin Luther King Jr.

1956: The home of Martin Luther King Jr. is bombed.

1956: The Montgomery bus boycott ends after the city receives
U. S. Supreme Court order to desegregate city buses.

1957: Martin Luther King Jr. and a number of southern black
clergymen create the Southern Christian Leadership Conference
(SCLC).

1958: Ten thousand students hold a Youth March for Integrated
Schools in Washington, D.C.

1959: Sit-in campaigns by college students desegregate
eating facilities in St. Louis, Chicago, and Bloomington,
Indiana; the Tennessee Christian Leadership Conference holds
brief sit-ins in Nashville department stores.

1960-1970

1960: Twenty-five hundred students and community members in
Nashville, Tennessee, stage a march on city hall—the first
major demonstration of the civil rights movement—following
the bombing of the home of a black lawyer.

1960: John F. Kennedy is elected president by a narrow margin.

1961: Martin Luther King Jr. and President John F. Kennedy
hold a secret meeting at which King learns that the new
president will not push hard for new civil rights legislation.

1962: Ku Klux Klan dynamite blasts destroy four black churches
in Georgia towns.

1962: President Kennedy federalizes the National Guard and
sends several hundred federal marshals to Mississippi to
guarantee James Meredith’s admission to the University of
Mississippi Law School over the opposition of Governor Ross
Barnett and other whites; two people are killed in a campus riot.

1963: Black students Vivian Malone and James Hood enter the
University of Alabama despite a demonstration of resistance
by Governor George Wallace; in a nationally televised speech
President John F. Kennedy calls segregation morally wrong.

1963: President John F. Kennedy is assassinated; Vice President
Lyndon B. Johnson assumes the presidency.

1964: President Lyndon Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964,
which prohibits discrimination in most public accommodations,
authorizes the federal government to withhold funds from programs
practicing discrimination, and creates the Equal Employment
Opportunity Commission.

1964: Martin Luther King Jr. is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.

1965: Malcolm X is assassinated while addressing a rally of his
followers in New York City; three black men are ultimately
convicted of the murder.

1965: Rioting in the black ghetto of Watts in Los Angeles leads
to 35 deaths, 900 injuries, and over 3,500 arrests.
1966: Martin Luther King Jr. moves to Chicago to begin his first
civil rights campaign in a northern city.

1966: Martin Luther King Jr. leads an integrated march in Chicago
and is wounded when whites throw bottles and bricks at demonstrators.

1966: The Black Panther Party (BPP) is founded in Oakland,
California.

1966: James Meredith is shot by a sniper while on a one man
“march against fear” in Mississippi.

1967: Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his first speech devoted
entirely to the war in Vietnam, which he calls ‘one of history’s
most cruel and senseless wars’; his position causes estrangement
with President Johnson and is criticized by the NAACP.

1967: Rioting at all-black Jackson State College in Mississippi
leads to one death and two serious injuries.

1967: Thurgood Marshall is the first black to be nominated to
serve on the Supreme Court.

1967: Rioting in the black ghetto of Newark, New Jersey, leaves 23
dead and 725 injured; rioting in Detroit leaves 43 dead and 324
injured; President Johnson appoints Governor Otto Kerner of
Illinios to head a commission to investigate recent urban riots.

1968: The Kerner Commission issues its report, warning that the
nation is ‘moving toward two societies, one black, one white—
separate and unequal.”

1968: Martin Luther King Jr. travels to Memphis, Tennessee, to
help settle a garbage worker strike.

1968: Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated by James Earl Ray
in Memphis, Tennessee, precipitating riots in more than one
hundred cities.

1968: Congress passes civil rights legislation prohibiting racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing.

1968: Ralph Abernathy, Martin Luther King Jr.’s successor as head
of the SCLC, leads Poor People’s Campaign in Washington, D.C.

1969: The Supreme Court replaces its 1954 decision calling for
“all deliberate speed” in school desegregation by unanimously
ordering that all segregation in schools mush end “at once".



[此贴子已经被spry于2002-10-31 1:45:05编辑过]

\"Our lives are a combination of good and bad, positive and negative.When we focus on the good that is already present, we feel better. If not, we don\'t. Either way, life goes on.\" -- Peter McWilliams

TOP

Thanks a lot! I am just looking for similar information and eager to learn more about that, such as the relationship or contract between the Indians and the federal government of the US, how the Congress works in legislation. Will u help? [em23]
优秀是一种习惯。

TOP

US Government

hi,maryland, hope this helps.


US Government


     The U.S. Government has three branches of government:
Legislative, Judicial, and Executive. These branches of
government have a mean of checks (constitutional) by the
other branches. Each has certain powers to check and
balances the other two branches. The good about these
checks is for that the other two branches don’t get to
powerful. When the constitution was first forming, the
checks and balances where first used. Each branch of
government is different.

Legislative branch is made up of the Congress. The
Executive branch is the President and his staff. The
Judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court and
other Federal courts. Legislative branch makes the
law, Executive branch carries out the law, and judicial
branch interprets the law. During time the system of
Checks and Balances were use over the years as it was
intended to do. Congress makes the laws, creates agencies
and programs, and appropriates funds to carry out the
laws and programs. They may override veto with two-thirds
vote, may remove the President through impeachment, and
the Senate approves treaties and presidential appointments.
The Executive branch appoints Supreme Court Justices and
other federal judges. The Judicial branch judges, appointed
for life, are free from executive control. They also have
the courts declare executive actions to be unconstitutional.

Clashes between each branch are hardly ever known. The system
of check-balance system operates all the time. Most of the
checks happen in the Capital. But some clashes can occur; The
President does veto some acts of Congress. On some occasion,
Congress has override one of the president vetoes. And some
rare occasion, the Senate does reject one of the president’s
appointees. And most direct confrontations are not common. The
three branches try to avoid them. The Checks-and-Balance
system makes compromise easy and necessary-and its part of
the democratic government.

In James Madison in his essay, The federalist No.51, uses
words to describe the main idea the uses of Checks and Balances
or in other words keeping the branches of government
“in their proper places.” An example, when the President
picks someone to serve in some important office in the
executive branch. Say the Secretary of State of the Director
of the F.B.I or the C.I.A, and the President is aware that
the Senate must confirm that appointment. In other words the
President picks someone who will very likely be approved
by the Senate. In similar was when Congress makes law. It
does so with a careful eye on the President’s veto power.
And the power of the courts to review its actions.

Checks-and-balances system has prevented “an unjust combination
of the majority.” It has not very often stalled a close working
relationship between the executive, legislative, and judicial
branches from time to time. The President and a majority in
both houses of Congress are especially true in good working
relationship. When the other party controls one or both houses,
conflicts play a larger than usual part in that relationship-
as they have in recent years. As part of the system of checks
and balances, court have the power of judicial review. The
power to decide whether what government does is in accord with
what the Constitution provides In other words the U.S. government
has used the system of checks and balances for many of years.
And it will be this way for many other years until someone
changes it. But I think that will come to mind.
\"Our lives are a combination of good and bad, positive and negative.When we focus on the good that is already present, we feel better. If not, we don\'t. Either way, life goes on.\" -- Peter McWilliams

TOP

Yea, it really works! To be honest, I met a RC about this issue in the exam, and it got me. Thanks again for your sincere help! [em26][em22]
优秀是一种习惯。

TOP

Indian Tribe


    The Southwest Region Native American tribe that is discussed
in the following focuses on the Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian
Community. The Pima-Maricopa Indians have struggled and endured
a constant hardship of events in its background, history, and
location. Thomas Dobyns, the author of The Pima and Maricopa stated,”
they have suffered through their worst years at the hands of
ruthless investors and land grabbers, and the fight to undo the
damage will never end. Descendants of the region’s original
inhabitants are, however, gaining skills in law, business,
farming, and community organization that they are utilizing to
win back the water and land that was once theirs.”

The Salt River Pima-Maricopa Indian community is in-fact two
Indian tribes, made up of the Pima tribe and the Maricopa tribe.
According to the Gale Encyclopedia of Native American Tribes,
these two tribes joined together between 1740 and 1780 in a
federation and would be governed by a single tribal council,
although they would follow their own tribal traditions.
Although speaking distinctly different languages the Maricopa
and Pima have since dwelled in harmony. The Pima Indian tribe
is believed to be the ancient ancestors of the Hohokam. The
Hohokam were a farming tribe that mysteriously vanished centuries
ago. The Pima attributed their decline to the rapacity of foreign
tribes, who came in three bands, and killing or enslaving many
of their inhabitants destroying their pueblos, devastating their
fields, and killing or enslaving many of their inhabitants.
It is speculated the Hohokam people may have suffered from
plague and disease after physical contact with the Spaniards.
The ancient Hohokam villages can still be seen today at different archaeological sites in the southwest.

The Pima had abundance of water from the Gila River that gave
the Pima a distinct agricultural advantage over other Indian
communities. Therefore they had less need to wander in search
of wild foods and were able to live a settled life in villages
near the river. Pima translates to “Akimel O’Odham,” which
means river people. They developed irrigation systems that
channeled water to their fields; this promoted a more abundant
supply of food. They also benefited from the Spanish, whom
introduced them to wheat. Wheat being a winter crop allowed them
to double their productivity, this resulted in a surplus of
grains and allowed the Pima to engage in an increased amount
of trading and commerce. The Pima remained neutral during the
Mexican-American War, which took place from 1846 to 1848.
Shortly after the Mexican-American War the land the Pima dwelled
on became U.S. territory.

During the California gold rush of 1849 the tribe thrived on
agriculture, bartering food and livestock for guns and shovels
to U.S. troops and prospectors passing through. They also
protected them from Indian raids on the white-man. The Maricopa
joined the Pima, whose language they did not understand, for
mutual protection against their enemies. They were at war with
the Mohave and Yavapai Indians as late as 1857 near Maricopa
Wells, South Arizona. The result was 90 of the 93 Yuman warriors
gave their lives in battle, after this disaster for the Yumans
they never wandered further up the Gila River.

The years preceding 1871 were devastating for the tribe due to
a shortage of water from the Salt River attributable to the
recent non-Indian settlements. The Pima were unable to reclaim
their water rights, causing the failure of crops and before long
famine that would diminish the population of the tribe
significantly.

Today the Pima tribe resides in Southern Arizona
along the Gila and Salt rivers, near Phoenix, Arizona. The Spanish
estimated there were approximately 2,000-3,000 members of the
tribe in 1694, and a 1989 census showed a joint population of
about 16,800 members. Evidence shows that the Maricopa Indians
originated in Southern California. Prior to the fifteenth century
they dwelled near the shores of the Salton Sea, approximately
fifty miles east of San Diego. The Maricopa migrated east towards
the Colorado River basin. The Maricopa tribe lived among other
Yuman language speaking tribes. Living among other tribes caused
constant fighting because of the scarcity of available resources.
By the early 1600’s the Yuman speakers were divided on the lower
Colorado River Valley into three distinct groups. The Mohave had
settled in the Mohave River Valley northward along the Colorado.
The Quenchan had settled at the junction of the Gila and Colorado
Rivers. And the Cocomaricopa settled between the Mohave and
Quenchan tribes.

By the mid 1700’s the Maricopa were being victimized by both
the Mohave and the Quenchan. They were forced upstream with their
rancherios extending about 40 miles along the Gila from the mouth
of the Hassayampa to the Auguas Caliente. Later, that same decade,
they made their historic alliance with the Pimas for mutual
protection against their kindred. The Maricopa tribe was at war with
the Mohave and Yavapai Indians as late as 1857 near Maricopa Wells
in southern Arizona. The result was 90 of the 93 Yuman warriors
gave their lives in battle. After this disaster for the Yumans
they never wandered further up the Gila River. Two years later
the United States Congress created the Gila River Reservation
on which they still live today. In 1775 the Maricopa population
was estimated at 10,000, and only 200 in 1986.
\"Our lives are a combination of good and bad, positive and negative.When we focus on the good that is already present, we feel better. If not, we don\'t. Either way, life goes on.\" -- Peter McWilliams

TOP

建议本贴加"推荐"!![em26]
优秀是一种习惯。

TOP

[推荐]BEE-Background Essay Everyday

in this series, you can get some background information on various topics.


[此贴子已经被tongxun于2002-11-1 23:14:33编辑过]

收藏 分享
\"Our lives are a combination of good and bad, positive and negative.When we focus on the good that is already present, we feel better. If not, we don\'t. Either way, life goes on.\" -- Peter McWilliams

呵呵,tongxun动作好快呀.还有个建议:每个版面的JJ总结建议用区别于其他帖子的字体或者其他形式醒目的标注出来,因为那是每版的最最精华所在的说.斑竹觉得如何? [em19]
优秀是一种习惯。

TOP

标题是不能改变字体和颜色的。要不然,我早用了。哈哈
Robert之家-----我的家园

TOP

返回列表