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GWD阅读翻译

1.        GWD-1-Q4 to Q6国内战后妇女参政现象研究的历史缺陷        4
2.        GWD-1-Q9 to Q12环境退化导致鲑鱼数量下降        6
3.        GWD-1-Q25 to Q28生理因素和环境因素对硅藻生物钟产生的影响        9
4.        GWD-1-Q35 to Q37企业对于供应商的选择战略        13
5.        GWD-2-Q5 to Q8是哪些因素改变了美国雇主与工人之间的关系        15
6.        GWD-3-Q5 to Q7火星陨石的化合物能够证明火星上有生命物质么        18
7.        GWD-3-Q12 to Q15美国国会和印第安人协商形式的转变及其意义        20
8.        GWD-3-Q23 to Q26影响企业执行即定战略(build or harvest)的因素        22
9.        GWD-3-Q35 to Q37文艺复兴时期妇女独立人格的研究(以某WIDOW为例)        26
10.        GWD-4-Q5 to Q7工业化城市化理论不能解释妇女选举权问题(以瑞士为例)        29
11.        GWD-4-Q22 to Q25劳动力报酬、劳动力成本和生产效率之间的关系        33
12.        GWD-4-Q35 to Q37暗银河系的发现及其科学意义        36
13.        GWD-5-Q9 to Q12商学院学生对行为科学课不再感冒的原因        38
14.        GWD-5-Q22 to Q25 IT技术为什么没有给企业带来竞争优势        41
15.        GWD-5-Q35 to Q37白杨树为什么要惹火烧身呢        44
16.        GWD-6-Q5 to Q7发生在北美的史前物种灭绝是人为的么        46
17.        GWD-6-Q9 to Q12小树懒为什么要往他妈背上爬        48
18.        GWD-6-Q23 to Q26寻找钻石的新思路        51
19.        GWD-6-Q35 to Q37批判泰国经济发展动因的某一假设        54
20.        GWD-7-Q6 to Q9实验证明经济人性自私的论调是错误的        56
21.        GWD-7-Q10 to Q12美国妇女教育源于美国的独立革命么        59
22.        GWD-7-Q22 to Q25形成火山的两个机理        61
23.        GWD-7-Q34 to Q36企业热衷瘦身的非经济因素        64
24.        GWD-8-Q4-Q6专家建议缩减临床试验的样本数        66
25.        GWD-8-Q7-Q10半导体行业热衷专利申请不是为了创新,那是为了什么        68
26.        GWD-8-Q25 -Q28对结构主义者歪曲科技地位作用的不实之论提出挑战        71
27.        GWD-8-Q35 -Q37单亲家庭生活穷困与妇女收入较低问题的讨论        74
28.        GWD-9-Q4 -Q7印加高地居民的生态农垦圈        77
29.        GWD-9-Q9 -Q11为什么说环境法规对各个企业是不平等的        80
30.        GWD-9-Q21-Q23黑兄弟顶着歧视加入白人工会的原因        83
31.        GWD-9-Q33 -Q36恐龙骨化石能够证明恐龙是温血动物么        85
32.        GWD-10-Q4 -Q6 San Andreas Fault断层成因探析        88
33.        GWD-10-Q10 -Q13对土著是否乐意采用农业新技术、除草剂的调研        90
34.        GWD-10-Q25 -Q28大名鼎鼎的印第安人水权案        93
35.        GWD-10-Q33 -Q35旅行社业另辟蹊径走向全球化        96
36.        GWD-11-Q35 -Q37当代女权主义者对20年代妇女选举权运动的评价        98
37.        GWD-12-Q4 -Q7关于Episodic Memory的一个实验(实验内容:小鸟藏食物)        100
38.        GWD-12-Q8-Q10英国铅白厂女工中毒事件发生后政府、妇女团体的不同反应        102
39.        GWD-12-Q24 -Q27瓦格勒大陆漂移说在问世之初不被接受的原因        105
40.        GWD-12-Q35-Q37质疑企业存款和企业投资影响利率变动的观点        108
41.        GWD-13-Q16 -Q19法国女裁缝行会引起男裁缝们不满        110
42.        GWD-13-Q24 -Q26 HOPI族印第安人社会文化传统长盛不衰的深层根源        113
43.        GWD-13-Q34 -Q37是谁控制着毛毛虫的生命长度        115
44.        GWD24-Passage one生物防除剂的风险分析        118
45.        GWD24-passage two抑制通货膨胀必然导致经济衰退么        120
46.        GWD24-passage three Du Bois在一战前后的政治立场(黑人领袖墙头草)        121
47.        GWD24-passage four深层地震的成因探析        123
48.        T-3-Q4-Q6学者对印地安部落社会结构的假设        125
49.        T-3-Q9-Q12 N-6-Q7-Q10美国企业迷信日本企业成功秘密在于“战略伙伴关系”的谬误        127
50.        T-3-Q25-Q27两派学者对突变基因的不同认识和态度        129
51.        T-3-Q33-Q36 80年代美国经济增长变缓原因何在        131
52.        T-4-Q5-Q7始祖鸟是从Theropod龙进化而来的么        134
53.        T-4-Q24~27:天山-7-33~36另类海豹哺乳方式与众不同        136
54.        T-7-Q23-Q25企业新产品开发对市场供求的影响        138
55.        T-9-Q5-Q7介绍一个为人所忽略的大发明家(与爱迪生同时代)        140
56.        T-9-Q9-Q12 Ecoefficiency 战略对企业的不利影响        142
57.        T-9-Q35-Q37自由资本主义在美国发展过程中真的没有遇到阻力么        144
58.        GWD-17-Q24-Q27 AFL对政府医疗保障的态度        146
59.        GWD-17-Q35-Q37 月球表面的洞        149
60.        GWD-18-Q3-Q5 电器产品未能把妇女从家庭杂役中解放出来        151
61.        GWD-18-Q7-Q10(与GWD12-Q4-7文章相同,问题不同)对一个动物实验是否有episodic memory        154
62.        GWD-18-Q35-Q37 美国资本投资失败的一些原因        156
63.        GWD-21-Q7-Q9 L的labor theory理论没有考虑到capital goods,所以被批判        158
64.        GWD-21-Q15-Q18 学者高估了quakers对妇女反对男权婚姻的影响        160
65.        GWD-23-Q25-Q27 组织价值观如何影响管理者决策        163
66.        GWD-25-Q13-Q15 songbirds筑巢的成功率        165
67.        GWD-25-Q25-Q28 socialist party利用妇女达到自己的目的        167
68.        GWD-26-Q7-Q9 pheromones是什么东东,是不是该划为odorant        170
69.        GWD-26-Q14-Q16 董事会经常失败的原因和改进措施        172
70.        GWD-26-Q25-Q27 18世纪妇女和男人在civil cases中的变化        174
71.        GWD-26-Q32-Q35 中国人改进了英国人测量珠峰高度的方法        176
72.        GWD-27-Q3-Q6 鸟为什么会飞的两种理论        179
73.        GWD-27-Q10-Q12 黑洞存在的研究        182
74.        GWD-27-Q23-Q26 对总统夫人的不同描述        184
75.        GWD-28-Q3-Q6 动物的social learning        187
76.        GWD-28-Q13-Q15 胡萝卜素颜色亮浅对动物交配几率的影响        189
77.        GWD-28-Q25-Q27 公共政策和劳动力市场对妇女产假的影响        190
78.        GWD-28-Q33-Q36 顾客忠实度和80—20法则        191
79.        GWD-29-Q3-Q6 社会地位是由年龄还是性别决定,学者根据再观察改进自己的观点        192
80.        GWD-29-Q11-Q13 公司合并        195
81.        GWD-30-Q6-Q9 不同学者对二战前后白人工人和黑人工人关系的看法        197
82.        GWD-30-Q11-Q13 最老的火山岩石和发现它的科学意义        200
83.        GWD-30-Q22-Q25 拉丁美洲妇女从农村移到城市对其生活的影响        202
84.        GWD-30-Q35-Q37 巴西,香港,墨西哥,台湾,新加坡,韩国,台湾发展快,马来西亚,泰国不行        205
85.        GWD-31-Q2-Q4 GDP衡量经济忽略了一些东东        207
86.        GWD-31-Q5-Q8 两种策略hard-sell和soft-sell的优缺点        209
87.        GWD-31-Q20-Q23 人直立行走        211
88.        GWD-31-Q30-Q33生物群落中主宰物种的产生机制(以PO、海星为例)        212

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1.        GWD-1-Q4 to Q6国内战后妇女参政现象研究的历史缺陷
      The fields of antebellum (pre-Civil    战前政治历史和妇女历史课题采用不
        War) political history and women’s his-        同资源专注不同事件。
        tory use separate sources and focus
Line on separate issues. Political histori-      政治历史家关注投票记录、报纸,
  (5)        ans, examining sources such as voting     政治家文章,及“美国政治之国”的
records, newspapers, and politicians’       出现。
writings, focus on the emergence in the
1840’s of a new “American political
nation,” and since women were neither      女性不是投票人或政治家,没被提及
(10)        voters nor politicians, they receive little
discussion.  Women’s historians, mean-    女性历史家对党派政治不感兴趣,而
while, have shown little interest in the       是利用私人文件、法律记载如遗嘱,
subject of party politics, instead draw-       和女性协会记录来说明妇女的家庭
ing on personal papers, legal records       生活、道德改革及女权运动的出现。
(15)        such as wills, and records of female
associations to illuminate women’s
domestic lives, their moral reform
activities, and the emergence of the
woman’s rights movement. 两种历史学家不同的观点
(20)              However, most historians have     但是大多数历史学家低估了妇女战前
underestimated the extent and signifi-       政治效忠的程度与重要性。
cance of women’s political allegiance
in the antebellum period.  For example,    例如VW党在1840’s的总统选举里
        in the presidential election campaigns         邀请妇女参加集会和演说,以赢得其
(25)        of the 1840’s, the Virginia Whig party      效忠。
strove to win the allegiance of Virginia’s
women by inviting them to rallies and
speeches.  According to Whig propa-      VW党宣传道在集会出现的妇女收集
ganda, women who turned out at the       信息,使党派塑造忠实的家庭,提醒
(30)        party’s rallies gathered information        男人道德价值观超越党派忠诚,树立
that enabled them to mold party-loyal       政党道德声誉。
families, reminded men of moral values
        that transcended party loyalty, and con-
ferred moral standing on the party.
(35)        Virginia Democrats, in response,          VD党相应地也开始吸引妇女加入。
        began to make similar appeals to
women as well.  By the mid-1850’s        到1850’s中期,妇女出席党派政
the inclusion of women in the rituals of      治仪式变得普遍,这种包含妇女
party politics had become common-        的意识形态被VD党吸收。
(40)        place, and the ideology that justified
such inclusion had been assimilated
by the Democrats.被忽略的妇女政治忠诚
老新观点
逻辑简图:
1P: antebellum political history and women’s history use separate and focus on….
Political focus on…. Women instead…..
2P: however, most underestimated extent and significance. For example….
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GWD-1-Q4:       
The primary purpose of the passage as a whole is to
               
A.        examine the tactics of antebellum political parties with regard to women
B.        trace the effect of politics on the emergence of the woman’s rights movement
C.        point out a deficiency in the study of a particular historical period
D.        discuss the ideologies of opposing antebellum political parties
E.        contrast the methodologies in two differing fields of historical inquiry
most underestimated extent and significance.
deficiency
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GWD-1-Q5:
According to the second paragraph of the passage (lines 20-42), Whig propaganda included the assertion that

A.        women should enjoy more political rights than they did无
B.        women were the most important influences on political attitudes within a family无
C.        women’s reform activities reminded men of important moral values不是改革活动
D.        women’s demonstrations at rallies would influence men’s voting behavior无
E.        women’s presence at rallies would enhance the moral standing of the party定位34行
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GWD-1-Q6:       
According to the passage, which of the following was true of Virginia Democrats in the mid-1850’s?
               
A.        They feared that their party was losing its strong moral foundation.无
B.        They believed that the Whigs’ inclusion of women in party politics had led to the Whigs’ success in many elections.无
C.        They created an ideology that justified the inclusion of women in party politics.无
D.        They wanted to demonstrate that they were in support of the woman’s rights movement.无关
E.        They imitated the Whigs’ efforts to include women in the rituals of party politics.定位35行
Q3:       
The author of the passage would be most likely to agree with which of the following statements regarding most historians of the antebellum period?
               
A.        They have failed to adequately contrast the differing roles that women played in the Democratic and Whig parties in the 1850’s.
B.        They have failed to see that political propaganda advocating women’s political involvement did not reflect the reality of women’s actual roles.
C.        They have incorrectly assumed that women’s party loyalty played a small role in Whig and Democratic party politics.
D.        They have misinterpreted descriptions of women’s involvement in party politics in records of female associations and women’s personal papers.
E.        They have overlooked the role that women’s political activities played in the woman’s rights movement.

TOP

2.        GWD-1-Q9 to Q12环境退化导致鲑鱼数量下降
      Over the last 150 years, large  过去150年人类活动导致大片鲑鱼栖息地
        stretches of salmon habitat have         消失:采矿,放牧,伐木,农业及娱乐城
        been eliminated by human activity:       市发展。
Line        mining, livestock grazing, timber
  (5)        harvesting, and agriculture as well
as recreational and urban devel-
opment.  The numerical effect is      数字化效果明显:腐化地的鲑鱼比纯净地
obvious:  there are fewer salmon     少许多;但是栖息地丧失还可能降低基因
in degraded regions than in pris-      多样性。
(10)        tine ones; however, habitat loss
also has the potential to reduce
genetic diversity.  This is most      在鲑鱼整体灭绝情况下这种可能尤其突出
evident in cases where it results
in the extinction of entire salmon
(15)        populations.  Indeed, most         确实,大多数分析家相信一些环境的恶化是
analysts believe that some kind       很多灭绝鲑鱼之死的罪魁祸首。
of environmental degradation
underlies the demise of many
extinct salmon populations.
(20)        Although some rivers have           尽管一些河流重新有鱼,原始族群的特殊
        been recolonized, the unique             基因已经失去。
        genes of the original populations
have been lost. 提出现象:数量减少,基因多样性下降,因为环境问题
      Large-scale disturbances in
(25)        one locale also have the potentiall     一个地方大规模扰乱可能会改变邻近地区
to alter the genetic structure of        的动物的基因结构,尽管那些地区是
populations in neighboring areas,       未被污染的。
even if those areas have pristine
habitats.  Why?  Although the         为何?虽然鲑鱼有强烈的返巢本能,部分
(30)        homing instinct of salmon to their      鱼(很少多于15%)从海里归来会迷路,
natal stream is strong, a fraction        在附近溪流产卵。
of the fish returning from the sea
        (rarely more than 15 percent)
stray and spawn in nearby
(35)         streams.  Low levels of straying       低程度迷路是重要的,因为这个过程提供
are crucial, since the process           新基因资源和一种机制,当一个地方的鱼
provides a source of novel             消失了,可以重新有鱼。
genes and a mechanism
        by which a location can be
(40)        repopulated should the fish
there disappear.  Yet high rates         但高度迷路是有问题的,因为走错路的
of straying can be problematic           鱼和现有的鱼杂交,到了某个程度,现
because misdirected fish may            有的(基因)当地适应性就会被冲淡。
interbreed with the existing stock
(45)        to such a degree that any local
adaptations that are present
become diluted.  Straying              环境条件稳定时迷路率相对低,但当溪
rates remain relatively low when         流受到严重扰乱失迷路率会大大提升。
environmental conditions are
(50)        stable, but can increase dramati-
cally when streams suffer severe
disturbance.  The 1980 volcanic        例如1980年SH火山爆发,往C河倾入
eruption of Mount Saint Helens,         泥浆碎块。
for example, sent mud and debris
(55)        into several tributaries of the
Columbia River.  For the next          接下来几年,海洋归来的st鱼被迫寻找
couple of years, steelhead trout         另外的溪流。
(a species included among the
salmonids) returning from the
(60)        sea to spawn were forced to
find alternative streams.  As            结果,它们的迷路率从原先的16%升到
a consequence, their rates of            40%以上。
straying, initially 16 percent,
rose to more than 40 percent
(65)        overall.另外后果及原因:干扰同样导致基因结构变化,因为洄游路线频率上升
      Although no one has quantified     虽然没人量化过人类扰乱造成的迷路
changes in the rate of straying            率的变化,但我们没理由怀疑这种效
as a result of the disturbances            果和SH山喷发造成的后果有质的区
caused by humans, there is no           别。
(70)        reason to suspect that the effect
would be qualitatively different
than what was seen in the
aftermath of the Mount Saint
Helens eruption.  Such a dra-           如此大量的从被破坏地转移到纯净地的
(75)        matic increase in straying from         迷路增加导致大量的基因流,可以降低
damaged areas to more pristine          后代的整体适应性。
streams results in substantial
gene flow, which can in turn lower
the overall fitness of subsequent
generations.最终结果:后代适应性变差
结论解释
逻辑简图:
1P:samlon habitat eliminated by… effect obvious: fewer; however, reduce genetic diversity
2P: also alter genetic structure. Low crucial; yet high, problematic.
3P: although, no reason to suspect…. Increase result in, in turn lower the …..

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GWD-1-Q9:
The primary purpose of the passage is to
               
A.        argue against a conventional explanation for the extinction of certain salmon populations and suggest an alternative
B.        correct a common misunderstanding about the behavior of salmon in response to environmental degradation caused by human activity
C.        compare the effects of human activity on salmon populations with the effects of natural disturbances on salmon populations
D.        differentiate the particular effects of various human activities on salmon habitats
E.        describe how environmental degradation can cause changes in salmon populations that extend beyond a numerical reduction
The numerical effect is obvious:  there are fewer salmon in degraded regions than in pristine ones; however, habitat loss also has the potential to reduce genetic diversity.  Indeed, most analysts believe that some kind of environmental degradation underlies the demise of many extinct salmon populations.
注意extend beyond和主题句中的however, reduce genetic diversity
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*GWD-1-Q10:
It can be inferred from the passage that the occasional failure of some salmon to return to their natal streams in order to spawn provides a mechanism by which
               
A.        pristine streams that are near polluted streams become polluted themselves
B.        the particular adaptations of a polluted stream’s salmon population can be preserved without dilution迷惑选项
C.        the number of salmon in pristine habitats decreases relative to the number in polluted streams
D.        an environmentally degraded stream could be recolonized by new salmon populations should the stream recover定位36-40
Low levels of straying are crucial, since the process provides a source of novel genes and a mechanism by which a location can be repopulated should the fish there disappear.  
Should=if  
E.        the extinction of the salmon populations that spawn in polluted streams is accelerated
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GWD-1-Q11:
According to the passage, human activity has had which of the following effects on salmon populations?
               
A.        An increase in the size of salmon populations in some previously polluted rivers
B.        A decline in the number of salmon in some rivers定位第一段Line 1-7
C.        A decrease in the number straying salmon in some rivers
D.        A decrease in the gene flow between salmon populations that spawn in polluted streams and populations that spawn in pristine streams
E.        A decline in the vulnerability of some salmon populations to the effects of naturally occurring habitat destruction

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*GWD-1-Q12:???
The author mentions the “aftermath of the Mount Saint Helens eruption” (lines 73-74) most likely in order to

A.        provide an example of the process that allows the repopulation of rivers whose indigenous salmon population has become extinct
B.        indicate the extent to which the disturbance of salmon habitat by human activity in one stream might affect the genetic structure of salmon populations elsewhere 但是有一点,文中说的是影响genetic flow而这里说的是genetic structure
C.        provide a standard of comparison against which the impact of human activity on the gene flow among salmon populations should be measured无关,没有提到要衡量,文中强调的是人类活动对洄游的影响
D.        show how salmons’ homing instinct can be impaired as a result of severe environmental degradation of their natal streams
E.        show why straying rates in salmon populations remain generally low except when spawning streams suffer severe environmental disturbance

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3.        GWD-1-Q25 to Q28生理因素和环境因素对硅藻生物钟产生的影响
      Recently biologists have been  近期生物家对HV硅藻的与潮汐关联的周期
        interested in a tide-associated           行为感兴趣。这种藻是显微可见的金棕色
        periodic behavior displayed by           藻,栖于潮水冲刷的海岸线(潮间带)。
Line        the diatom Hantzschia virgata, a
  (5)        microscopic golden-brown alga that
inhabits that portion of a shoreline
washed by tides (the intertidal zone).
Diatoms of this species, sometimes   被称为“通勤者”的硅藻高潮挖坑,日间低
called “commuter” diatoms, remain    潮时出洞。
(10)        burrowed in the sand during high
tide, and emerge on the sand sur-
face during the daytime low tide.
Just before the sand is inundated by   在潮水上升淹没沙前它又再挖洞。
the rising tide, the diatoms burrow
(15)        again.  Some scientists hypothesize  一些科学家假设通勤者知道低潮,因为它
that commuter diatoms know that it     感知环境变化,如潮汐运动导致的温度改
is low tide because they sense an      变或压力变化。
environmental change, such as an
alteration in temperature or a change
(20)        in pressure caused by tidal move-
        ment.  However, when diatoms are       但是,当硅藻在实验室稳定环境下,在数
        observed under constant conditions       周内仍表现周期行为,继续挖洞。
in a laboratory, they still display
periodic behavior, continuing to bur-
(25)        row on schedule for several weeks.
This indicates that commuter diatoms,   这表明硅藻并非依赖环境信号来定时间,
rather than relying on environmental     而是拥有一个内在的生物钟,让它预计环
cues to keep time, possess an inter-     境的周期变化。
nal pacemaker or biological clock
(30)        that enables them to anticipate peri-
odic changes in the environment.
A commuter diatom has an unusu-      残酷环境压力造就了硅藻异常准确的生
        ally accurate biological clock, a            物钟;
consequence of the unrelenting
(35)         environmental pressures to which
it is subjected; any diatoms that do      未在潮到前挖洞的硅藻会被冲走。
not burrow before the tide arrives
are washed away.提出现象及其研究
      This is not to suggest that the     这并不是说生物钟周期一成不变。
(40)        period of this biological clock is
immutably fixed.  Biologists have        生物家指出,虽然硅藻不靠环境定时间,
concluded that even though a           环境因素- 包括潮水流体静力压力、盐度
diatom does not rely on the envi-        和机械刺激及温度- 能让硅藻按照潮汐
ronment to keep time, environmental     周期改变生物钟周期。
(45)        factors—including changes in the
tide’s hydrostatic pressure, salin-
ity, mechanical agitation, and
temperature—can alter the period
of its biological clock according to
(50)        changes in the tidal cycle.  In short,     简而言之,机体生物钟与环境的关系就
the relation between an organism’s       像腕表和它主人的关系。
biological clock and its environment
is similar to that between a wristwatch
and its owner:  the owner cannot        主人不能让表走快或走慢,但可以重置
(55)        make the watch run faster or slower,     指针。
but can reset the hands.  However,       但是这种关系在高低潮线间居民如通
this relation is complicated in intertidal     勤者硅藻中是复杂的,因为这些机体
dwellers such as commuter diatoms       受到太阳日周期和潮汐周期等的影响,
by the fact that these organisms are       有时在单独行为中同时表现两种周期。
(60)        exposed to the solar-day cycle as
well as to the tidal cycle, and some-
times display both solar-day and
tidal periods in a single behavior.
Commuter diatoms, for example,          例如通勤者只在日间低潮时出现。
(65)        emerge only during those low tides
that occur during the day.环境因素对其生物钟的影响
现象解释
逻辑简图:
1P:  recently biologist interested in T behavior of HV. Some hypothesis… however… indicate, rather than, possess..
2P: not suggest fix. Biologist conclude environmental factors can alter
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GWD-1-Q25:
The passage suggests which of the following about the accuracy of the commuter diatom’s biological clock?
               
A.        The accuracy of the commuter diatom’s biological clock varies according to changes in the tidal cycle.反
B.        The unusual accuracy that characterizes the commuter diatom’s biological clock is rare among intertidal species.
C.        The commuter diatom’s biological clock is likely to be more accurate than the biological clock of a species that is subject to less intense environmental pressures.定位32-36
D.        The commuter diatom’s biological clock tends to be more accurate than the biological clocks of most other species because of the consistency of the tidal cycle.
E.        The accuracy of the commuter diatom’s biological clock tends to fluctuate when the diatom is observed under variable laboratory conditions.

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GWD-1-Q26:
The author of the passage compares the relationship between an organism’s biological clock and its environment to the relation between a wristwatch and its owner most probably in order to

A.        point out a fundamental difference between the function of biological clocks in organisms and the use of mechanical clocks by humans
B.        illustrate the way in which the period of an organism’s biological clock can be altered by environmental factors
C.        suggest that there are important similarities between the biological clock in organisms such as the commuter diatom and the biological clock in humans
D.        support an argument regarding the methods used by certain organisms to counteract the influence of the environment on their biological clocks
E.        question the accuracy of the biological clock in organisms such as the commuter diatom
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GWD-1-Q27:
According to the passage, the periodic behavior displayed by commuter diatoms under constant laboratory conditions is characterized by which of the following?
               
A.        Greater unpredictability than the corresponding behavior under natural conditions
B.        A consistent periodic schedule in the short term定位第一段 39-41
C.        No difference over the long term from the corresponding behavior under natural conditions
D.        Initial variability caused by the constant conditions of the laboratory
E.        Greater sensitivity to environmental factors than is the case under natural conditions
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GWD-1-Q28:
The primary purpose of the passage is to
               
A.        dispute the influence of environmental factors on the tide-associated behavioral rhythms displayed by the diatom Hantzschia virgata
B.        describe how certain tide-associated behavioral rhythms displayed by the diatom Hantzschia virgata have changed over time
C.        compare tide-associated behavioral rhythms to solar-day behavioral rhythms in the diatom Hantzschia virgata
D.        examine how certain biological and environmental influences affect the tide-associated behavioral rhythms displayed by the diatom Hantzschia virgata
E.        identify certain environmental factors that limit the effectiveness of the biological clock in the diatom Hantzschia virgata
注意文章的进展,前面说了HV所表现的现象,后面说环境因素对其生物钟的影响
GWD18-Q23
Which of the following can be inferred from the passage about the effect of the solar-day cycle on the tide-associated periodic behavior displayed by commuter diatoms?
               
A.        The solar-day cycle makes this behavior less advantageous to the commuter diatoms at certain times of the year.
B.        The solar-day cycle makes this behavior somewhat more erratic.
C.        The solar-day cycle makes this behavior less important to the survival of the commuter diatoms.
D.        Because of the solar-day cycle, this behavior is forced to proceed at a more rapid pace at certain times during the 24-hour day.
E.        Because of the solar-day cycle, this behavior is not expressed at certain times during the 24-hour day.

Q25:       
According to the passage, each of the following is characteristic of the tide-associated periodic behavior of commuter diatoms EXCEPT:
               
A.        It is triggered when the diatoms are inundated by the tide.
B.        It is correlated with the rise and fall of the tide.
C.        It adjusts to changes in the tidal cycle.
D.        It is influenced by the solar-day cycle.
E.        It is regulated by an innate time-keeping mechanism.

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4.        GWD-1-Q35 to Q37企业对于供应商的选择战略
      In corporate purchasing,        在企业采购里,竞争力审查只限于与终端
        competitive scrutiny is typically           产品有直接关联的物品供应商。
        limited to suppliers of items that are
Line        directly related to end products.
  (5)        With “indirect” purchases (such as    对于“非直接”购买(如电脑,广告,法
computers, advertising, and legal      律服务),不与生产直接挂钩,企业常偏
services), which are not directly        好“供应伙伴关系”(购买者放弃寻找替
related to production, corporations     代供应商的权力),这可能使供应商避过
often favor “supplier partnerships”    严格的审查,从而令购买者的经济优势丧
(10)        (arrangements in which the          失。
purchaser forgoes the right to
pursue alternative suppliers), which
can inappropriately shelter suppliers
from rigorous competitive scrutiny
(15)        that might afford the purchaser
economic leverage.  There are two    有两个独立变量- 替代品可用性和更换供
independent variables—availability     应商的便利性- 可让公司用来评估是否要
of alternatives and ease of changing    间接采购供应商接受竞争力审查。
suppliers—that companies should
(20)        use to evaluate the feasibility of
        subjecting suppliers of indirect
        purchases to competitive scrutiny.
This can create four possible                分以下四种情况。
situations.非直接采购以及四种情况
(25)              In Type 1 situations, there are   1,替代品多,更换容易。可能的话,经
many alternatives and change is        常公开出价效果最好。
relatively easy.  Open pursuit of
alternatives—by frequent com-
petitive bidding, if possible—will
(30)        likely yield the best results.  In        2,替代品多,更活困难- 如员工福利供
Type 2 situations, where there          应商- 保持检验市场并用检验结果保证
are many alternatives but change       现在的供应商让步是最重要的。
        is difficult—as for providers of
employee health-care benefits—it
(35)         is important to continuously test
the market and use the results to
secure concessions from existing
suppliers.  Alternatives provide a       替代品是可靠的对供应商威胁,尽管换
        credible threat to suppliers, even if         供应商的能力有限。
(40)        the ability to switch is constrained.
In Type 3 situations, there ate few       3,替代品少,更换容易,公司可利用
alternatives, but the ability to switch      威胁与现在的供应商谈判让步。
without difficulty creates a threat that
companies can use to negotiate
(45)        concessions from existing suppliers.
In Type 4 situations, where there        4,替代品少,更换困难,伙伴关系就
are few alternatives and change         可能不能避免了。
is difficult, partnerships may be
unavoidable.四种情形的分别讨论
结论解释
逻辑简图:
1P: indirect purchase, favor “partnership”. Two variables to evaluate. Four possible situations:
2P: type 1,2,3,4
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GWD-1-Q35:
Which of the following best describes the relation of the second paragraph to the first?
               
A.        The second paragraph offers proof of an assertion made in the first paragraph.
B.        The second paragraph provides an explanation for the occurrence of a situation described in the first paragraph.
C.        The second paragraph discusses the application of a strategy proposed in the first paragraph.
D.        The second paragraph examines the scope of a problem presented in the first paragraph.
E.        The second paragraph discusses the contradictions inherent in a relationship described in the first paragraph.
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GWD-1-Q36:
Which of the following can be inferred about supplier partnerships, as they are described in the passage?
               
A.        They cannot be sustained unless the goods or services provided are available from a large number of suppliers.
B.        They can result in purchasers paying more for goods and services than they would in a competitive-bidding situation.
Which can inappropriately shelter suppliers from rigorous competitive scrutiny that might afford the purchaser economic leverage.
C.        They typically are instituted at the urging of the supplier rather than the purchaser.
D.        They are not feasible when the goods or services provided are directly related to the purchasers’ end products.
E.        They are least appropriate when the purchasers’ ability to change suppliers is limited.
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GWD-1-Q37:
According to the passage, which of the following factors distinguishes an indirect purchase from other purchases?

A.        The ability of the purchasing company to subject potential suppliers of the purchased item to competitive scrutiny
B.        The number of suppliers of the purchased item available to the purchasing company
C.        The methods of negotiation that are available to the purchasing company
D.        The relationship of the purchased item to the purchasing company’s end product定位2-3
E.        The degree of importance of the purchased item in the purchasing company’s business operations

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5.        GWD-2-Q5 to Q8是哪些因素改变了美国雇主与工人之间的关系
This passage is based on an article written in 2000.
        The traditional model of employer-employee relations in the United States was a                        1 美国传统的雇主-员工关系模式是“心理契约”,即
“psychological contract” in which employees made long-term commitments to                                        2 员工承诺长期服务公司,以此换得长期工作保障,培训发展和内部升职。
organizations in exchange for long-term job security, training and development, and                                3
internal opportunities for promotion.  Beginning mainly with the recession in the early                        4 主要从1970’s早期经济衰退开始,这种模式开始瓦解。
1970’s, this paradigm began to unravel.  Organizations began using extensive downsizing                5 组织开始运用广泛的规模缩减和外部采购减少员工中的永久员工数,
and outsourcing to decrease the number of permanent employees in the workforce.  Among                6
employees this situation has resulted in a decided shift in desire: in stead of working their                        7 对于员工,这种情形导致了其愿望上的决绝改变:与其向上爬升,
way up in an organization, many now prefer to work their way out.  Entrepreneurship at                        8 很多人更愿意寻求出路。小型商业管理创业是现在商学院里成长最快的
the small business administration are now the fastest-growing majors in business schools.                        9 专业。
        Several factors have generated movement from the old paradigm to the new one.                        10 数个因素导致旧模式向新模式的转变。
Organizations have had legitimate and pressing reasons to shift to a new paradigm of                        11 组织基于法律的迫切原因要转向新的雇主-员工关系模式。
employer-employee relations.  Large numbers of permanent employees make it difficult                        12 大批的永久员工会让公司在低迷时期难以通过降低工本迅速作应对。
for organizations to respond quickly to downturns in demand by decreasing payroll costs.                        13
The enormous rights in wrongful discharge suites has created incentives for organizations                        14 庞大的(员工提出的)不正当解雇官司的权力刺激公司聘请
to use temporary, contract, and leased employees in order to distance themselves from                        15 临时的合同租借工,以远离潜在的诉讼问题。
potential litigation problems.  Moreover, top management is under increased pressure                        16 而且,高层日益受到股东压力,要在短期内实现越来越高的投资回报,
from shareholders to generate higher and higher levels of return on investment in the                                17
short run, resulting in declines in hiring, increases in layoffs, and shortage of funds for                        18 这导致雇佣减少,辞退增加,缺乏员工发展的基金。
employee development.                                                                                                                                19
        At the same time, a lack of forthrightness on the part of organizations has led to                                20 同时,组织方面缺乏坦白,导致员工对管理动机和能力越来越多讥讽。
increased cynicism among employees about management’s motivation and competence.                        21
Employees are now working 15 percent more hours per week than they were 20 years ago,                22 员工现在的每周工作时间比他们20年前多了15%,但公司只是通过
but organizations acknowledge this fact only by running stress-management workshops                        23 运作压力管理工作室帮助员工来承认这一事实。
to help employees to cope.  Sales people are being asked to increase sales at the same time                24 公司削减履行电话广告预算同时,又要求销售人员增加销售额。
organizations have cut travel, phone, and advertising budgets.  Employees could probably                25
cope effectively with changes in the psychological contract if organizations were more                        26 如果组织更坦白他们如何改变心理契约,员工可能会更有效地配合。
forthright about how they were changing it.  But the euphemistic jargon used by executives                27 但是执行者委婉的为自己施行的变化辩解的行话经常事与愿违 ;
to justify the changes they were implementing frequently backfires; rather than                                        28
engendering sympathy for management’s position, it sparks employees’ desire to be                                29 它没让员工对管理立场产生同情感,而是鼓动员工脱离组织。
free of the organization all together.  In a recent study of employees’ attitudes about                                30 在一项近期的关于员工对管理的态度研究中,49%的样本同意
management, 49 percent of the sample strongly agreed that “management will take                                31 “管理一有机会就会利用你”。
advantage of you if given the chance.”                                                                                                        32

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Question 5:
The primary purpose of the passage is to

A.        discuss the financial implications of a recent shift in attitudes among workers
B.        propose a new approach for businesses to increase loyalty among their employees
C.        defend certain business practices in light of criticism of corporations, actions
in a recent past
D.        speculate about possible long term benefits of a recent change in the general
business climate
E.        consider some of the factors contributing to a major shift in employer-employee
relationships

Question 6:
The passage suggests that which of the following is a legitimate reason for
organizations’ shift to the new model of employer-employee relations?

A.        Organizations tend to operate more effectively when they have a high manager-
to-employee ratio.
B.        Organizations can move their operations to less expensive locations more easily
when they have fewer permanent employees.
C.        Organizations have found that they often receive higher quality work when they
engage in outsourcing.
D.        Organizations with large pools of permanent workers risk significant financial losses
if the demand for their product or service decreases.
E.        Organizations are under increasing pressure to adopt new technologies that often
obviate the need for certain workers.


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Question 7:
Which of the following best characterizes the function of the final sentence of the
passage (lines 30-32)?

A.        It is such as an alternative explanation for phenomenon discussed earlier in the passage.
B.        It provides data intended to correct a common misconception.
C.        It further weakens an argument that is being challenged by the author.
D.        It introduces a specific piece of evidence in support of a claim made at beginning
of the final paragraph
E.  It answers a question that is implicit in the preceding sentence.
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Question 8:
The passage suggests that organizations’ movement to the “new paradigm” (line 11) is
based in part on the expectation that wrongful discharge suites against employers are?

A.        less likely to be filed by non-managerial employees than by managers
B.        less likely to be filed by leased employees than by contract employees
C.        less likely to be filed by contract employees than by permanent employees
D.        more likely to be filed by employees with a long history in the organization than
by newer hirers
E.        more likely to be filed in small organizations than in large ones

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