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[分享]TOEFL iBT备考导航汇总 平安夜更新刷考位技巧

《IBT备考导航》之三十一:iBT全球考场大点评

新托福的考试增加了口语部分,考试的方式是大家坐在一起完成整个考试,这样就对在一起的考生形成了非常大的干扰。考场条件的不同,也对最后的成绩起了非常大的影响。为了方便后面的考生选择比较好的考场,特意开此专贴,请考过的朋友对自己的考场进行点评。

Usa

Miami

Thomson Prometric Test Center

QUOTE:

考场不大,只能容纳20、30人,是小隔间,类似国内的语音室。

我是最后一个注册的,结果坐在最贴近门的位置。除了听力,我特意把声量调到,其他时间感觉一直都很难集中注意力。不休息的时候有管理员进出,休息的时候有考友进出。加上本身又非常紧张,所以时不时地分散注意力。所以还是建议大家考试那天早点到考场。如果说第一个不好,那么千万也别是最后一个。做在门旁干扰实在比较大。

管理员还是比较友好的。休息期间我只是去了下洗手间,来回只用了一分多钟。我本想直接进去考试了,管理员说我只休息了一分钟,告诉我还有时间。不过我出来后过了大概也就一两分钟吧,她就叫我进去考试了。没有出现情况说非得休息10分钟才能考试。

点评人:yaxin21 - 2006-9-4

New Jerseye

ast orange

QUOTE:

那个考点的条件实在是太太太太差了。冷气根本不起作用,房间里热的要死。一个大风扇对着我吹。可怜的我,为了怕冷气太冷,还穿的很多。然后桌子很旧很旧,中间已经弯下去了。两个人一台,正好在倾斜面上。中间用纸板!!!!!格开。中间纸板还差点倒下来!!这次我要没考好,以后再也不去这个地方了

但是其实也有好处,就是那两个人几乎不来管你。我觉得在里面做什么都看一眼的样子。没人来一直看着你。而且我的包包还带进去了。中间也有人居然电话响!我们也可以自由进出。休息的时间也没一定。我就几乎休息了20分钟。

这里总的来说就是条件差,管理也差。所以有好有不好。

点评人:jojokitty - 2006-8-2

Paname (PA)

allentown

thomson prometric test center

QUOTE:

看到在这考的asia face不是很多,staff基本nice,我中途break想提前进去,结果一个黑mm说我还不到10分钟,不让我进去,说是policy,不知道其他人遇到的情况是怎么样的.

点评人:cici1979923 - 2006-6-22

Pennsylvania

thomson prometric test center (981 North Wales Rd, #15 North philadelphia)

QUOTE:

总体来说还不错,冷气很冷,幸亏穿了个小薄外套. 工作人员也算和蔼可亲,有个小黑MM虽然开始一直板着脸没什么笑容,后来我走的时候倒是笑了一下。考场不大,一格一格的电脑台,靠得比较近,我用的电脑还好,一直听话没有出问题。我是第一个被放进去的,开始还挺高兴,因为被安排到最里面,其实并不好,因为我开始做阅读了,后面的人也陆续进来了,调麦克的声音四起,我完全不能专心看阅读,第一篇做得一塌糊涂。旁边的俄国GG说话象打雷一样,他一说话我就要吓得一愣。反正互相影响是不可避免的了,但是如果要我选,我宁可晚点进去,这样做听力的时候别人说口语我还可以调麦克的声音,觉得没那么困扰。

点评人:sabrina_ai - 2006-6-22

Philadelphia, 费城

Thomson prometric test center。 Thomson是专业负责考试的承包公司,美国各个城市都有.

QUOTE:

总的来说
设备比较专业。每个人有一小隔空间。别人做口语的时候把听力音量调大就并不妨碍。
staff表面上都彬彬有礼,实际上非常提防亚裔尤其是PRChina护照的人。比如说我的美国朋友打电话过去问关于10分钟break的事情,她们就说可以延长到15分钟。而任何亚裔考生去问绝对是:只能是10分钟,绝对不可以延长!或者是没到10分钟绝对不可以提前进去!
Thomson工作人员对中国人的绝对,后来我的美国朋友告诉我,是来源于她们自认为对中国的了解,比如过去中国的作弊行为还有JJ等。总而言之,在美国就是这样,美国人自认为知道了你的弱点,就会狠狠地对付你。E.TS是非常头疼JJ,所以大家还是要保护一下JJ,不要让其查到这个吧,否则岂不又要有麻烦。

个人经验:

我们要非常严格遵守它的规则,否则监考人倾向于处理亚裔,而并不是运气的原因。

比如我考tofel前去考了gre, 因为考前生病,所以想监考官申请多休息几分钟,表面上监考官A说可以,后来另一个监考官B却很坏地这个监考官A document了我的行为。一直到考完我都没有意识到她们是披着文明化羊皮的狼,因为她们一直对我微笑直到我考完。其实每个考生在考后7天内都可以投诉考场。她们这样表面一套背后一套的行为,让我当时根本没有觉察到麻烦。
可想而之,我千辛万苦考到的好分数以为可以放松了,却在数周后收到E.ts要取消我分数的通知因为对其它考生不fair。我去Thomson考场问,监考官A也告诉我监考官B补充了很长的内容来落井下石,还在documentation里撒谎说:叫了我好几次都没有回去等等(监考官这样说也是用来表明她们工作是多么地负责)。监考官A说监考官B就是这样写的,她也没有办法改变。之后,我又用了数周去向E.ts argue,e.ts有专门处理考试安全问题的一个队伍,他们那里有录象开会讨论等等,最后分数是非常艰难地拿回来了,过程我就不说了,整个人都觉得大病一场。而且影响了我准备toefl的时间。
前几天去考tofel,因为gre考完不知道监考人那样表里不一,就约的同一考场,自然又碰到她们。我估计她们也能看到我给e.ts写的信等,所以这次监考官B态度比较凶一点。考试中间我的电脑有问题,我去找她的时候看见她正在打电话聊天,这下她觉得她被抓到把柄了,立刻过来解释说她是在处理别的工作事情,然后给我换了一台电脑。之后她又变的凶巴巴的。考后我问她我的休息时间是几分钟,她很厉害地说:你什么意思。然后又说:9分钟,差一点就10分钟了。
对了,考试的时候,她在我们后面走来走去,我旁边是个韩国人,她就想抓到什么把柄。这个监考官是部分美国女人的典型代表,表面上笑地灿烂,而在心里却歧视或害怕来自中国的人,背后就做一些事情来证明她的观点,从而她还能因为她的严谨获得提升。

点评人:wloy - 2006-8-1

Washington, DC

Thomson prometric test center

QUOTE:

总体来说还不错。每人一小间用隔板隔开,而且干净整洁,房内温度适中(因为看到前人的总结,所以专门带了一件小外套,刚好合适)。Staff 都还比较friendly and helpful。好像没有歧视亚裔的情况,至少我没有感到受到歧视。

唯一不足的就是电脑屏幕有点闪。害我做第一篇阅读的时候总觉得眩晕。不过过了一会就适应了。

还有就是以前听别人说进场的时候要争取尽早进去,这样就可以坐在靠里边的座位,受的干扰会小一些。这边的情况好像刚好相反。我当时就是奋不顾身的第一个冲了进去,谁知道他们竟把我安在了正正中间的一个位置。后进来的人在我身后进进出出,并且大声地试音,害得我至少10分钟都没法集中精力。从我的经历来说,我建议大家以后还是稍微晚一点进去。这样当你进去的时候,其他人都已经坐好,并开始做题了,这样受的干扰会少一点。

点评人:Kristine - 2006-8-15

Virginia

Fork Union

QUOTE:

考点设在一个军校的图书馆(但是要从Abor rd进去)
从Charlottesville大概1个小时车程 教室类似学校的小型机房,仅一排而已,可容纳19个人。LCD,但是没有隔板。Fountain和restroom出考场就是,所以比较方便。
两个人监考,其中一个是officer,都相当和善和耐心。

点评人:jingxoo - 2006-10-19


Canada

Hamiltion

Columbia International College

QUOTE:

the condition is not bad but each room have 24 seats. and my room is full!!!

a little tip, you can rest for more than 10 min if u want,cause the computer wont start until the supervior set it.

点评人:kikihelen - 2006-9-11


Montreal

1, guy-concordia

QUOTE:

有N个小考场,每个考场10个人。屋子小,空气不好。
而且不是标准的电脑桌,就是长桌子,人和人之间距离比较近,较受影响。
来考试的老外居多。
网速在阅读部分比较慢,翻下一题的时候经常卡住,不过还好时间也同时卡住。

点评人:doomgeneration - 2006-8-28


Toronto

1, Alborz educational Center(STN11573A). Address: 20 tangreen crt, tronto.

QUOTE:

all the guys wanting to book ibt in toronto must be careful, if you have options, plz do not try this center.

  1. the facilities are sucks: the test was in one big classroom, the front half is a regular classroom, lots of chairs mess around, and the second half are the computers which are used to do the test. all of these scattered around, 90 percent of them are very old used pc, and there is not any sparate stuff like frame between each computer. when taking the test the whole room was so noisy. Honestly, i just finished my gmat monthes bofore and this is my second to take toefl, trust me, remember this center and do not try it!
  2. i never tried such a bad service before no matter where i took the ets tests:
    • the test supposed to be start at 6pm, some of people came here at around 5pm. All the testers stayed in one small classroom which is so dirty and no air-conditioning for the next two hours.
    • because of network problems like every other centers, we waited there till more than 6:30pm. during this period, what they told us is 5 more minutes, and 5 more minutes. And the worest thing is when one of the guys and i went to the testing room to check it out what was going on there, one of the examiner suddenly yelled at me : get out of here, get out of here. i think everyone could what we felt under such condition.
    • during the test: during the time all the people focused on the listening, different noise keeping around us, the teachers walked back and forth calling louldy for password kind of things, and some of the teachers even do not turn off their cell phone, let their cell phone kept singing and then talked with his friends just out side the room.

Anyway, i will call ets on monday, i can not put up with spending nearly 200 bucks for such kind of service, it is shame of ets!

finally, i hope anybody who took the same test with me gvie me support, and let more people know do not try this center!!!!!!

点评人:kevinchaung - 2006-9-10


Vancouver

1, University of Victoria

QUOTE:

30 people took the test in one room, a little bit noisy, but the staff were so nice. the computers, desks and chairs were in good conditions and comfortable.

点评人:yinzheng66 - 2006-6-22

2, Franklin English Language colllege

QUOTE:

大温哥华地区华人承办的新托福考点。由于技术支持及时全面,考试期间基本没有故障。已经承接了十场考试,场场圆满顺利。

点评人:frankmiao - 2006-6-22

Greater China

大陆地区按字母顺序排列,港澳台地区在本回复的最后三个

北京

北京师范大学

QUOTE:

60台电脑,30个机器可以考,纸板隔开。纯平方正电脑。

检录处就在考场里面,非常闹,整个考试过程中老师随意走动,大声说话。

只有一支铅笔和3张纸,结果是草稿纸没了根本没时间管他们要,在听力呢。老师还非得拿旧的换新的。笔记都在上面呢。

中间有休息10分钟,可以出去。

点评人:gift - 2006-9-16

QUOTE:

我下午3点半到的考场,地点是北师大的曾宪梓楼的302(STP80031A),结果被告知要五点才能开始,等阿等~~~,其间和考场的管理人员争取了更多的铅笔和草稿纸(居然是粉色的~~),那边 说只有一支铅笔和3张纸,我是勉强够了。
四点半的时候终于让进了,只能带证件和当时填的声明那张纸,考务人员先用摄像头照相,然后分配座位,有领位的,坐好后就可以考试拉~~~!!和网上的ETS的样题界面一样,但顺序做题就成啦,中间随时有事可以叫老师。说说那里的条件吧,电脑的屏幕是CRT 17的,看时间长了很难受,下次去的同志们可以带上眼药水,我做完阅读眼睛就疼得不行了,趁听力念direction 的时候休息了一下下。
耳麦效果很好,隔音也不错,可以调整到你听得正好的音量但基本上听不到周围的人的说话,除了我写作文的时候有个人说话特别大声外我基本上没受什么影响。
中间休息的时候可以去另外的教室吃东西,建议大家吃士力架,3块钱一个,我休息的时候都饿坏了,吃了一个后立马精神抖擞,呵呵,休息的时候管的不是很严,可以再把口语和作文的模版再看看:)

点评人:chenhaoa - 2006-9-15

QUOTE:

北师大曾宪梓楼303考场。北京师范大学小南门,进门往东就是曾宪梓楼的背面。挺宏伟的。又叫“教九楼”。

没有任何标志,问了上自习的同学都不知道在哪考,来到3楼才看到托福有关的一张纸,303房间。机器六十台,容量30人,就跟一般的机房一样,键盘感觉生硬。本来是4:00考试,我们就在对面的休息室(就是一般的大学自习室)等待,等到五点终于进场。我是最后一个进入考场的,开始考试的时间是五点五十。

关于存放物品,就放在对面的自习室里,有人工看管。。。。汗

洗手间在走廊两侧,步行分别需要30秒和10秒。

隔音效果也不好,如果坐外面的同学还要给后来的里面的同学让路,非常麻烦。

点评人:charmant - 2006-9-16

北京外国语大学

QUOTE:

北外有明显的互相干扰,实在是不能避免的,虽然耳机都是美国过来的,但是外音还是很大,而且我旁边的gg口语声音好大哦,崩崩崩的,一个女老师好心过来跟我说:你也要大声喉哈,不然录不进去,真是晕啊....

考场老师都还算nice, 有一个同学只带了一个证件,也允许他考试了,不错不错。

点评人:心香一瓣 - 2006-9-15

赛尔

QUOTE:

考场感觉还行,每个小格子都用木板隔开,电脑是北大方正的,液晶显示屏。整个考场大约30个座位

耳机是美国KOSS (?)好像是这个牌子,带上去感觉不错,隔音效果还算好,不过当然不可能完全隔音了,但是因为没考成所以没听到效果

点评人:tabris17 - 2006-9-15

QUOTE:

17寸的方正液晶显示,应该一共有20个机位,还有10个备用。环境还不错,听说北师大的还是纯平的。

先在候考区等着,按去的时间安排你进入考场。除了考生,送考的家长不让进入候考的地方。等待考试的时候也不让用手机。

然后就是进入考试的那个机房。进入先照像,然后随机分配机位。坐下之前,工作人员会输入一个什么内容,然后让你看到的就是一个需要你按continue的界面。

点了按钮以后,就是题目下载了,我们这些没有考成的就是下载到76%就过不去了。

因为没有考试,就只知道这些了。

点评人:gin118 - 2006-9-15

工商大学考点

QUOTE:

总共25人,我第四个入场,最重要的经验是:由于工商大学考点的座椅不统一,大约1/3有靠背,2/3没有,我由于进去的比较早,就把椅子给换了,鄙视自己下。

不让离开座位也太BT啦,工商大学可以离开,去厕所,由于工商大学把考试所在教师的走廊给隔离了,所以考生可以到走廊上走,去上厕所也比较松,我去厕所第一次还有人在厕所门口看门,第二次我去漱口就没人管了,中途不让打开储物箱,要喝水监考老师会提供。

点评人:飘来飘去 - 2006-9-15

清华考场

QUOTE:
考场情况:两个大房间,每个房间大概25台电脑,每排两台电脑并且中间有隔板隔得很开,除了口语说得特别大声之外你可以忽略你旁边人的存在;另外重要的一点,就是大家不用担心戴上耳机说话不适应的问题,因为在你说话的时候你的耳机里能直接听见你的声音,跟平时说话没多大区别;键盘不是新的,不过手感还不错,大家不用担心,鼠标是新的(就我换了n台电脑的经验);非液晶显示器,再加上带着耳麦,再加上大脑飞速运转,比较热,短袖短裤即可(也可能是因为没开空调);考场纪律比较严,10分钟休息时每次只能一个人去厕所。

点评人:天冥翼 - 2006-9-16

QUOTE:

一共有45个人考试,大概有50多台机子,塑料板隔开
耳机统一,屏幕是纯平非液晶,比较大,但感觉不如液晶好,比较闪
另外考场里面很热的说,还有一个就是阁间的座位很挤,离屏幕好近看得眼睛好疼……

点评人:anasituogalu - 2006-9-17

QUOTE:

清华,两个房间。宏基的机器17crt纯平。
有一些机器很闪,大概刷新只有60。有一些不闪,要分到不闪的机器要看人品。
老师很nice,铅笔是HB的,两头,没有了可以管老师要,草稿纸也是这样。
比较安静,木隔板隔开。比北师大好。

点评人:gift - 2006-9-24

QUOTE:

昨天在清华考的,机子一点都不闪。总共有48个人考试。考场就是前面的照片那个样子,椅子很舒服,不过空间太小了,要把显示器转个方向,才可以记笔记。键盘很有手感,比我平时用的IBM的本的都要有手感。鼠标有的时候有点反应不灵敏,总体来说硬件比较好。耳机带着也很舒服。就是我很迟才进考场,旁边的人都开始口语了,我才开始听力,不得不把音量调到最大,以至于头很痛,考试的时候边听,边记,适时地揉揉头。我等到4点左右才开始考的,据说是里面什么东西坏了。个人觉得这个考场比较隐蔽,指示不明显,还要问人,建议大家报这个的,提前去踩点。厕所也不远,一分钟到吧。有储物柜,里面手机信号被屏蔽。其实感觉还不是很正规,也没有说一次只能一个人去厕所。换草稿纸的速度很快,答约10秒钟。害我还担心了半天,以至于听力有的细节没听到。铅笔是两头的,没有什么特别的。其他就没什么了。想到再补充吧

点评人:xiaoqi809 - 2006-12-2

大连

大连外国语大学

QUOTE:

总的说来那里的环境不错, 电脑是联想的, 感觉很新, 显示器也很柔和, 眼睛不会感觉很累. 椅子是兰色的, 带靠背的.

屋子里面很暖和,不用穿外套, 进去的时候老师会给你一个钥匙, 你可以把你自己的东西锁到外边的小柜里, 然后去写协议, 最后大家很有秩序的进去, 老师会给每个人照相, 然后会告诉你座位号, 直接过去就可以了.中间的时间可以自由出入,卫生间就在教室对面, 很方便.

那里的老师也很好,特别和蔼,如果有什么不清楚,都可以问他们, 在整个考试过程中,屋子里的秩序都很好,只是在口语那会稍稍有些吵, 不过我觉的不碍事.对了, 考试的地点是在一号楼603室, 上楼的时候上到五楼以后, 一定要向左拐,进到一个门后再上六楼. 我当时就是走错了, 到五楼向右拐了, 结果弄错了.

点评人:冰山恋雪 - 2006-12-18


 

广东

广州 仲凯农学院

QUOTE:

硬件:

  • 15寸CRT显示器,非Dell品牌,屏幕刺眼,阅读到后来我眼睛都睁不开了,但也可能是晚上11点多了的原因;
  • 桌子深度和宽度不够,使我记笔记时得偏在一隅,好像是以前大学时代抄同学作业一样鬼鬼祟祟。桌子下面有挡板,放主机,所以会搁住你的胫骨,我被碰了好几下;
  • 灯光亮度尚可,但照明布局明显不行,没有辅光源的日光灯照射,长时间后人容易疲劳。考试教室环境色冷调,偏灰蓝;
  • 空调运行温度较低,需要另外带长袖衣服进去保持体温;
  • 隔音效果不行,带着耳机做听力时受到邻座极大的口语干扰,考试出来还有人赞扬我口语好,说我说得流利,可见我也影响他了,虽然我有意让自己说得轻一点不要影响别人;
  • 我数了一下,一共有位置36个左右。

软件:

  • 老师态度都很好,也很严格。我做口语之前,还被老师用一种很迂回的方式检查了一下机器里的照片是不是我本人。
  • 学校食堂伙食糟糕,这么难吃的东西也能叫夜宵,想想广州遍地的小吃,我寂寞了。
  • 校园环境非常漂亮,一位北京来的光头考生告诉我,在广州你就算往草地里插根筷子都能活。这里的植物非常茂盛,考试的楼在最高层,一圈楼当中围了种好多植物,头上蓝天,让我感觉不来考试该多好。但校园雕塑不行,何香凝什么的,用料和形式感都欠功夫。
  • 学校学生都很单纯很友善,很多女孩子都在军训,很可怜,不知道我们国家为什么要女孩子也接受这样无聊又无趣的单调训练,她们这时候应该去恋爱的。
  • 校址比较偏僻,听有考生家长说连出租车司机都不知道它在哪儿,只知道具体方位。其实它就在广州珠江的南岸,靠近中山大学那里的。
  • 校园内部考试方位指示牌做得多,让我方便得找到考场位置,但最后一块放得有点问题,结果我跑到另外一幢楼的同号码房间,遇到一位戴眼睛的木讷老师。

点评人:siegfriedshi - 2006-10-1

广州 广东外语外贸大学

QUOTE:

考场不大,大概40、50人左右,电脑都是方正的,液晶显示器,设备没什么问题。
考生按规定时间到达后,等了1个多小时,入场是按名字的顺序,先进去可以先考。广外的空调比较冷,建议大家带一件长袖衣服。
总共有4个监考员在巡逻,同时有监视器。个人感觉大家能报广外就尽量报,无论环境、地理位置、设备都比仲凯好。暂时想到这么多,如果有问题欢迎提问。

点评人:xyluis - 2006-11-19

上海

华东师范大学

QUOTE:

考场内没有隔间,耳机也有部分有问题.考试时座位安排就是两人之间隔台电脑.虽然耳机隔音效果还凑合,但多少会有影响.外面没有放包的柜子.包都放在硬纸板上.老师不了解操作流程.场面一度混乱.考虑到是第一次考,可以部分原谅.

考点是计算机楼,就在毛主席像(标志性建筑物)的南面10米处.米黄色建筑物.(路的左手边)好象有四层.考场在第二层.从西面的入口进去,先在一楼准备.具体考试步骤如下:

  1. 将个人证件出示(一定要符合ETS的要求),然后他会在身份证(我用的是身份证)的背面贴一个白色的小纸条(方便后面写你的座位号码,稍后会提到).然后进入旁边的侯考室等候(可以上网,呵呵)
  2. 抄写誓词(同GRE),老师说可以修改-_-!!,他基本不会看.只要把他要求的几个地方(除了左上角的State不要填)都填好就行了.此处要求比较松.老师也没什么经验.可能以后会加强吧.
  3. 等到考试时间到了之后,由老师带着上二楼,然后排队入场.(很慢).先核对你的证件,然后拍照.是站着拍的.(拍出来的效果不太好,有点暗)
  4. 拍完照后会分配给你一个座位,并将座位号写在刚才贴的白纸条上.然后你就将你的包放下.(目前还没有专柜).
  5. 到此为止,你可以进入考场了.

考场还算比较大.能容纳70个人左右吧.(没算过).然后把身份证交给一个老师,他会领你到你的座位上去.然后给你输入密码(貌似没有密码进不了系统).接着你可以带上耳机听听你自己的说话声.有问题赶快和老师说.再接着你就可以进入系统了....然后我就不知道了.就在这一步的时候出现了不可修复的问题...IoI

电脑屏幕挺大,方正的.鼠标手感也还行.耳机也过的去.就是人与人之间没有遮挡的东西.就隔了台电脑.我想可能会造成一定影响吧.

p.s.大家都知道考完听力有10分钟的休息时间.在这段时间里是不能离开座位的!所以,要吃东西或者上wc的同志最好在考之前解决了.还有,除了这次休息外,每个人还可以要求一次额外的休息,不会被考官记录在案.但休息的时候也不能离开座位..而且表也不停(不知道这个有什么用..)如果要加第二次休息的话,就会被记录在案了(好象上厕所等一切离开座位的事都会被记录,然后上报ETS,但考官也没说这种行为有什么后果)

点评人:leeaoran - 2006-9-15

QUOTE:

因为网络原因没有考成,所以只能讲讲考场环境了
第一 很乱,考场和准考证上的都不一样,管理人员对保密协议怎么写不知道,对要求反复更改了几次,汗!
第二 不人道,要求十分钟休息期间不得离开座位,不得上卫生间,只能做着等10分钟
第三 只有一位技术人员,忙得不亦乐乎,还是搞不定
不知下次网络怎样,要等多长时间,一定要把吃的喝的准备好了

点评人:freeofspirit - 2006-9-15

QUOTE:

考试进去之后就是确认你的信息,这个时候你可以不点屏幕,然后利用这段时间把作文的模板写在纸上,到写作文的时候就可以找着这个打了,速度比你用脑想的要快,我小作文107个字的模板用了2分钟,大作文的模板215个字用了5分钟,所以这个方法还是可以用的,另外就是,如果你晚了10多分钟开始考试,你能看到隔壁同学的口语,有人会问不是有隔间的吗?当然不是,你的位子就是一排人,空一排,然后又是一排人,你觉得你能看到吗?当然,死也要看啊!最过分的是如果你眼力够好,你可以在别人做阅读的时候已经看到别人的答案了,当然这就是变相的对答案啊,我说的都是事实,不要说我卑鄙,事实就是这样,当然,我考试的时候人家都说口语了,所以只能听到口语,其他的,可惜了!

点评人:icdicm - 2006-9-16

QUOTE:

因为有了上一次的经验,这次驾轻就熟的就在找到了考场,这次证件和确认信在进教学楼门口就检查了,华师大总是矫枉过正,这次没有带确认信的都被拦在外面,不知道后来怎么样了。
这次华师大井然有序极了,一点状况都没有。
不过规定还是一样的不通人情,强制性休息的时候不能出去,不能吃喝,要中途出去只能用自己的时间,而且只有一次机会。不过后来好像有点松了,有人上厕所出去了,我听到我后面一个女生一直在跟老师说要上厕所,老师就是不肯。
空调很冷,我考口语的时候,因为紧张,直发抖

点评人:lijx_helen - 2006-9-23
 

QUOTE:

华东师大 文科楼407

考场不是很大,大概30多台电脑,都很新,17'液晶,鼠标耳机感觉都不错。唯一不好的是没有隔间,就是回形的排着几排电脑,我可以看见隔我一排的人的屏幕(因为是对着我的),可惜看不清楚~口语的时候还是有点影响的,不过可以通过音量调节,减到最低吧。老师也比较nice,中间休息的时候可以上厕所,喝水吃点东西。

而且考场离华师正门很近,很好找。考场的另一边是资料室什么的,还比较安静。但华师里面一共有三个考场,文科楼是考场A,据说计算机楼里面的电脑就不好。

考前一天我试过坐地铁到金沙江站,但是从地铁站走到华师大概要15m,所以建议大家还是打车。(当然我没有试过公交)。我是住在朋友家的,但听师兄说华师里面住的也不错,而且也不贵。

点评人:domothy - 2006-10-10

上海外语大学

QUOTE:

上外考场也有好几个只有身份证的,不过最后都让进的~上外的设施还可以,一人一个桌,耳机也不错,但是没有隔板。而且似乎准备工作不怎么样,那里的老师都不紧不慢的,我早上去的时候,问他们怎么都不贴个告示,他们回答我,下午的了,早呢~到了下午三点半,问他们怎么还不让进,他们说早呢!!!!

点评人:xiaozhouzhou - 2006-9-15

QUOTE:

上海外国语大学松江校区信息中心(进大门的第一幢楼,五楼517室),共有进100台电脑左右,每排10个电脑,共十排。但实际考试大家分开做,共容纳大约40名考生。电脑dell的,鼠标是两个键加中间一个滚轴的那种,键盘很好用,耳机就是那个专用的K什么牌子的,很好。三张黄色的A4草稿纸,一根铅笔。大约8个监考老师,其中有3-4个技术人员。

点评人:bigbelly - 2006-9-15

QUOTE:

上外的考场也算不错,Dell的机器,17液晶,KOSS耳机,而且那个房间有100多台电脑,只有40个人进去考的。干扰不是很大。

点评人:longhornx - 2006-10-14

上海交通大学

QUOTE:

考场很新,在新启用的电信群楼4号楼3楼。

考场电脑全新,17寸液晶,键盘很舒服。每人一个座位且相互有隔板,前后目前没有隔板。隔音效果一般。听说全国很多考场出现网络问题,这里在4点40以后说系统全部准备好,大家陆续进考场,一阵下载后就启动考试系统了,中间答题可能出现几秒停顿,但是刚好可以多思考下。其他一切正常。考场不是很严格,可以喝水。随身携带的物品放在,电脑桌的右下角橱柜里。10分钟休息的时候可以拿吃的东西到外面吃。去洗手间随时可以,而且人很和蔼,但是超过两次估计要打报告才行。

整个考场很干净,整洁,人也不闹。一共20-30人样子,做口语的时候没有想象中的太大影响。有什么问题只要举手,马上有人过来帮助你。这里的人都还是很和蔼的。

总的说来,交大的考场设备很好,坐逛逛电梯上三楼,里面17存液晶的,耳机隔音一般,两边有隔板,前后没有隔板,所以妳可以看到前面人的屏幕的,我眼睛近视,还有妳可以听到别人试音,但是一般大家都比较注意,嗓门都还好。考试的进程都是相互独立的。考试过程跟模拟一样,唯一的区别就是,可能中间会听一会儿,因为网络问题吧,不用担心,等一会儿就可以勒。里面要求也不是很严格,说不让吃东西,我就看见前面一个一边喝水一边做阅读,(可惜比我慢考,不然可以参考,呵呵,玩笑啦)不过偶尔看到他的题目跟我一样。说下交大这边10分锺休息都让干写什么,进考场的时候,妳可以带妳的包,里面放什么他们不管,只要考试不拿出来就可以,10分锺休息的时候,可以从里面拿手机出来打个电话,或者拿点食品出来吃。

点评人:richard_jian - 2006-9-16

四川

四川大学

QUOTE:

电脑台数:20
耳机:KOSS
电脑配置:Lenova的某某型号,只有P4,反应有点慢
考场环境:总的来说比较满意,老师一举手就到。也没遇到死机的事情,叫老师也就是为了换铅笔和草稿纸。有空调,才进去的时候有点冷,后来考着考着就热了,温度基本上算是很舒适。
到场时间:3点过点点
进大楼时间:3点半
开始考试时间:4点半
结束时间:8点半左右
流程:由老师带入考场(3点半)—— 检查证件并签保密协议(3点45左右)——由老师带去存东西,上厕所,并带到考场门口等待(4点)——依次进入考场(4点半)

证件建议带护照,要不然必须带两样。关于一类二类证件中身份证重复的问题,考试中心解释是:明确写明必须带两样,就不能只带身份证。有位可怜的外地MM因为只有身份证没考到。

进大楼之前就把手机关了务必提醒大家,有个MM差点因为手机问题被赶出去。她是在签保密协议的那间办公室拿出来关。虽然最后主考还是放了她一马,但这样的经历有的话毕竟是不愉快的。

东西可以存放在考试中心,他们会给你讲柜子的地方然后给你一把锁,但他们不负责看管你的东西。锁上就没问题了,哪个会来偷嘛。

中途休息的10分钟上下厕所然后喝点水,我是吃了个面包然后含了两片西洋参。托福是体力活不得不承认,建议大家不要选下午4点开考的,这个时段是人一天最困的时候。其实早上8点还相对好点,但要保证头天晚上不能因为太兴奋或者太紧张睡不着。Anyway,I'm surviving!

考场的工作人员还是多好的,前提是你不能犯规。在考场门口等的时候还叫我们到隔壁教室坐下,和我们吹牛说放轻松。考完后在取东西那里遇到两个工作人员,还吹了下牛。总的四川大学考点给我的印象是很好的。

注意事项一定要留心啊。证件!手机!多研究下考生须知吧,上面其实说得比较清楚。

还有成绩寄送的问题,是两个工作日后办理,而且办理只能在一天,过了就办不了。不远的话还是建议自己去领。像我都准备10,1再拜访川大一次。办理寄送可以不必要本人,但要本人证件的复印件和代办人的有效证件。要交钱,多少就不清楚。而且周末不办理。领取不是本人行不行就不知道了,10。1我去了再说吧

不需要到得特别早,但早到是有好处的。推荐就提前考试时间的45分钟吧。像我这次4点就应该3点一刻到比较好。

点评人:Heng8866 - 2006-9-16

QUOTE:

我是在成都考的,3点到的川大出国培训部大楼.楼下有一个牌子上面写着"托福考试的考生在此等候"大概有8个人已经到了.有两个监考老师在那里等我们.关手机(重要!!!)3:30进场,检查证件,这时出了很多问题.有几个人只带了身份证,没有第二证件.马上补(好象有一个女生没有考成)然后签保密协定(这时有一个女生把手机拿出来,然后被警告!!!)之后就是等~~~~一直到5点.

点评人:sqiurrel - 2006-9-15


 

天津

天津大学

QUOTE:

考场离天大东门很近

住宿

  • 天津大学里面有42斋 南开大学有静园 情况怎么样不太清楚
  • 我住在天宇酒店 步行10+分钟, 再客房能够看到考场。 站在天大东门能看到的最高建筑就是,很好找。不过比较贵[4星],客房1000的话400就能拿下[先去网上查价格]

  • 天大东门对面有 上岛咖啡 名典咖啡 KFC 巴西烤肉
  • 学校有食堂

考试

  • 天津大学综合实验楼617,按照ETS提供的是找不到的。
  • 签保密协议[自己带非铅笔]----照相考试[东西放小柜子里,手表都不让带]
  • 一开始去问的时候说中间10分钟只能在自己座位,不能吃喝拉撒。后来考场出现问题,考试延后,我是4:50开始考[考场一共48人,我基本属于中间],9点考完。 考场最晚的要到11点[老师说的]。 后来中间10分钟老师给买了矿泉水和蛋糕派,吃喝拉撒随便了。
  • 考场环境还不错,90台以上的电脑,地上没地毯,考生之间隔一排。个子高的同学不是很爽,能看到前面的人半个脑袋,屏幕和键盘也比较矮[我183cm]。每个人肯定能看到自己同一排的人。显示器不是液晶,平时用液晶的同学注意,我当时是感觉有点不太适应。 考场影响不是很大,戴上耳机照样能听到别人的口语,但是比我想象的好很多[我最在角落里,周围人都比我晚到,所以没什么影响,不知道坐在中间什么感觉]。键盘按键不是很硬,声音不大。
  • 环境不错,老师也很安静,还给我们买矿泉水和食品。口语有影响但不大。
  • 学校不负责给你寄送成绩,必须去天大领[是不是必须本人我没问]。

点评人:安静vs寂静 - 2006-9-16

QUOTE:

上面对天大考场的评价都很到位,我要补充的就是

1。考试负责的老师都很客气,非常有礼貌,但是冷冰冰的。

2。我是考早晨的,但是不到7:30就会在楼下的一个教室做考试说明,填写保密协议。所以还是应该去得早一点。

3。就像CD里已经提到过的,需要寄成绩的同学一定要带好钱,不过当天下午在9号楼似乎还是可以交钱要求寄成绩的,成绩也是在那边领。

4。考前说明的时候告诉我们一般情况不可以上厕所,其实中间休息的十分钟是可以的,进场的时候只能带证件,但是中间休息回来以后,我旁边的一个哥们儿拿了纸巾进来,而且一直在清理他的鼻子。中间的这十分钟,如果老师不输入密码是不会继续考试的,但是天大的老师超级“负责任”,她看你休息得差不多了,会站在你旁边等到休息时间一到,马上输入密码。所以拖延时间也不是很容易。

5。铅笔秃了都可以换的,草稿纸一共三张,个人认为够用了。不够他们也不给你了。

6。我在做阅读的时候,好像我的前面很多人开始了听力,我可以听得到听力的声音,但是听不到内容,因为我是很容易分神的人,所以很影响注意力的集中。口语的时候,我和旁边的那个哥们儿差不了2分钟,所以没有提前偷听到什么。也许是在为口语部分做准备,我旁边的那个哥们儿把每一部分的的指示都跟读了,声音虽不能说嘹亮,但足以影响其他人了。可惜座位都是随机分配的,没有什么好办法,我只能祈祷大家到时候能挨着比较厚道的人吧。

点评人:angelandtt - 2006-12-11

浙江

杭州 浙江教育大厦

QUOTE:

考场方位:去http://www.edushi.com/上面搜索浙江教育大厦就可以找到。打的的话,和司机说就在“市交警支队”附近,我想没有那个会不知道的...

考场情况:

  1. 大厦那是相当华丽..,考场在3楼,ms也是雅思的考场,环境很好。
  2. 进楼后,先到306,工作人员会给你发放誓言表,填好就是。然后是漫长的等待拍照进程(考试在310举行),等待过程中可以在306休息。
    [Tips] 有关电脑:DELL机子,真正考试的时候(就是在310室)是17寸LCD,键盘也不错的。鼠标和键盘都放在键盘架上,鼠标无法拉到桌面上。系统是win2000,不过处理过了,你点无关的地方都是没有反应的。无关话(-_-):iBT在线系统是JAVA写的...,进入考试状态后就全屏显示考题了。310内靠墙的电脑桌是单人座,中间是2人并排的ms,如果你可以抽到靠墙,可能受到边上人的影响就小一些,lucky you! 挡板比较高,隔绝性还不错。工作人员都很kind且friendly。
  3. 然后,按照姓氏顺序叫人(name list贴在门上),进场拍照,入位,准备考试。
    [ATTENTION!!!] 入座后请不要马上一路continue,就开始做题。why? 这时候,许多人还在检入,场面吵杂,极度不利于首个section,也就是reading的发挥。其实什么时候开始答题是你控制的,你continue了就开始。所以请耐心观察考场秩序基本稳定后再开始考试。我今天就有些吃亏,当工作人员说可以开始的时候,其实场面还不是很安静,导致我第一篇阅读就没有怎么看进去,唉!阅读还是我拿手好戏呢,sigh... 所以,我想提醒大家务必注意这点。务必务必。

点评人:leeaoran - 2006-9-15

QUOTE:

35个人集中在一个大教室,个人的位置是进考场后,随机确定的。每个人就是一张桌子,上面用两块板子将相邻的考生隔开的。隔音效果确实不好,加上麦克风离嘴巴还是有点距离的,(麦克风太短了)大家都要很大声的讲,才可以。所以可以想象,互相干扰的确存在。(建议提前考)
中间考试的时候,出现过几次电脑反应不过来的情况,就是当点击下一题时,停在那里不动了,这时,多等一会就好了,我大概碰到了4,5次吧
中间可以休息10分钟的,而且,杭州教育院考试中心的老师还是很kind,第一次考试的时候,差不多有一半的人先开始都没连上,老师就一个一个帮我们连,他们也挺辛苦的。

点评人:leeaoran - 2006-9-15


 

香港

香港考试局考

QUOTE:

想察地图或者公车的xdjm就看这个网吧:www.easygo.com.hk
进去之后直接上5楼(nnd,爬死我了。。。),没电梯。但是厕所在一楼,就是说你考试中间要上个厕所好像要做一番很大的体力运动,所以我就没动。之后到了5楼,中间是一间房间,写保密的,然后就等监考人员叫号照相入场了。左右各两个场子,一个场子里面好像有16台机器。场子分成格间,很像写字楼里面的办公室那种布局。电脑设备什么都是dell的,但是显示屏是最古老那种,还有点反光,看得我眼睛那叫一个累。剩下设备什么的都挺好的。哦,dell键盘和我笔记本的差不多大,所以我还挺happy的。监考老师还好,没什么不好,不过讲广东话的。因为我在这边上学上了很久了,所以广东话没什么问题。如果你听不懂,监考老师应该会讲英文的,所以不用担心。

点评人:nala_wan - 2006-11-19

台灣

台北館前路考場

QUOTE:

評論:舒適不足,摸魚有餘

  館前路考場,登記處好像在8F(不確定),但是考場卻在樓上,所以報到後東西必須寄放樓下,只帶護照上樓。考場是隔開的幾間電腦教室,長深型,電腦左右約各兩排,中間有走道。每個電腦桌前端都有高起的隔版。

  館前路考場人員相當親切,電腦設備有點舊的感覺,但還算穩定。至於管理,可以說是「非常不嚴」。我中間休息後回到位子,是否restart考試,何時restart,完全自己來,工作人員完全不管,於是我坐著偷聽了十五分鐘別人的口說。可惜的是,這間考場干擾度頗低,雖然聽到別人講口說微弱的聲音,但是內容完全聽不清,結果我一題都沒聽到。

  若要談環境,基本上並不舒適。電腦桌下凹入的空間居然設了一個架子,導致腿完全放不進去,我身邊的同學是側坐從頭寫到尾。冷氣剛開始覺得一般,寫到後來感覺越來越冷,還有個風口直吹我腦門,建議大家務必帶外套。

点评人:candrow - 2006-9-12

Other Areas

Deutschland

Berlin, Alexander Str.7(Alexanderplatz 5.), D-10178

QUOTE:

柏林有几个考点,我在亚力山大大街7号,就是原来的亚历山大广场5号。坐公车,地铁或S-Bahn到Alexanderplatz站下来,问下人很容易找得到。在一栋上面有Sharp霓虹灯广告牌的高楼里。

ETS的考试中心在五楼,不大的一个地方,几间办公室,一个大屋大约40平和一个小屋大约20平是考场。设备是IBM的笔记本,标准耳麦,没有隔间,就是在一溜长桌上摆开,每个人离得都不远,但是本本放的位置都是你肯定看不到别人屏幕的。我坐的那个小件,就像个小会议室,桌子是围成一圈的。

到了以后领表抄保证,有个房间专门存放自己的物品,然后就等。负责的是一个MM和一个GG。MM看上去很Punk,鼻子上扎洞洞那种,不过很nice, 等待期间她向大家讲解了考试流程,还问我有没有明白她说的德文。GG管拍照,大家排队,一个一个照相,交表和ID那张纸,然后就进场考试了。

监考的也是MM和GG,一人负责一个房间,期间纸和铅笔随叫随换。我是GG监考的,但他经常不在,笔秃了就可以自己拿。另外还有水,一次性水杯装好放在那里,随便拿,考试期间也可以喝。另外外面过道还放了Kinder的巧克力米条,十分钟休息时候随便吃。卫生间就在走廊上,很近。休息的时候还可以去存东西的房间拿自己带的吃的,GG拿钥匙带过去开门,时间快到的时候还会提醒你回去继续考试。房间里可能暖气开得比较足,我觉得嘴好干,特别是嘴唇,后来休息的时候去拿了润唇膏涂才好点。

总的来说考场没什么可挑剔的,唯一就是觉得做阅读的时候,ETS网站的模考好象用的粗体的Arial,实考的时候那个字体看上去好细,眼睛挺吃力的,不知怎么回事。

点评人:Fernweh - 2006-11-18

France

Paris

QUOTE:

地点在rue de rivoli上,闹市,很好找,到的时间比较大众的话,门口有很多人排队,因为门小,不到时间不开门,
我考的时候,主考一个老头,现让大家到一个厅里集合,然后报名字分教室,教室的名字都是城市名,自己名字和教室名字都听听清楚
当时教室很简陋,不知道现在好点没有,居然没有隔间,一大张桌子,用纸箱子隔开来。。。狂汗当时,边上人说什么都听得到,而且我是在一长桌子的顶头,那里特别窄,居然也要挤两个人,包什么的随便自己带进去,就放在教边!

点评人:voila_vivianne - 2006-10-30

THAILAND

BANGKOK

QUOTE:

我是第一个进考场的.照相,找电脑,考试都在一个房间进行.所以,考阅读的时候完全无法集中注意力.本人考场的电脑还特别烂. 好几个主机不行,要抱出去换新的.结果从5点我进入考场开始,到7点,最后一个人都还没坐下来考试.而那时候我已经开始听力了..所以,阅读可以说是完全不知所云.

并且到听力的时候还无故黑屏,重新启动.妈妈呀!我以为要打包回家了.谁知,居然被STAFF调到重新接上听力,开始.到后来去BREAK,居然发生所有人都需要重新启动的事.才能接着口语. 口语的时候同志们的声音都此起彼伏,完全无法集中精力放在自己想说的东西上.幸好,说的时间短.咱速战速决.

再说说那个冷气,考场居然不开!估计是怕我们冻着.可是,我完全是按照冷气间的标准穿了长袖和长裤去.最后热的俺满头大汗.

考场配置也超烂,一个超小的房间居然装了20多个人.中间只是用硬纸板隔开.真不知那140米他们拿去干啥米了?

总之,同志们要做好心理准备! 别期望一个PLEASANT的考试EXPERIENCE

点评人:shining_chai - 2006-9-14

Singapore

Singapore

QUOTE:

新加坡的考场还真是不错。秉着要早到的优良传统,我不到三点就到考场,结果大门紧锁,工作人员那个时候出去吃饭了,我只好坐在门外等阿等,快三点半的时候工作人员终于到了,她还说我来得太早了,然后就是填保密协议,我四点就进去考试了。在这里想澄清两个问题,因为之前看帖子,有人说早到能占个好位置,但实际上你是不能选位置的,位置都安排好了。 另还有人说考试不会开始的太早,比如说一般在5点左右考,实际上我4点进去就可以直接考试了。不知道国内的情况是怎样的。我是当时第一个进去的, 当时还觉得早进去能早考完,至少可以少受点干扰

点评人:corrinepea - 2006-9-16

TOP

《IBT备考导航》之三十二:利用“杨鹏17天”背诵托福词汇

新托福开始了,很多朋友将参加这一新的挑战。兵家一直有“兵马未动,粮草先行”的说法,对于托福考试,最基本的粮草,就是词汇了,是整个备考环节中最先开始的也是最基础的一环。目前新托福的词汇量要求,根据考过的xdjm反映,有所增加(但之前传言要求8000的说法,好像还不至于)。如果要扎实准备,目前新东方四大词汇书中,王玉梅的应该是首选,但是40个list ,5000出头的词汇,不是那么容易对付的。考过G的朋友,基本都知道有一个“17天搞定GRE单词”的办法,作者是新东方的杨鹏老师。将此法移花接木,拿来搞定王玉梅的托福单词,不是为一个良方。

首先,我将杨鹏背词法的精华高度浓缩一下:

      杨鹏背词法的核心是短时期内的高频重复记忆,充分利用多次复习来提高背单词的效率,(比如一次性花半小时记忆一个单词,肯定不如一年内反复看60次的效果好)。此法其实是针对人脑的记忆曲线设计的,因为人脑在初记之后的几天,遗忘信息量最大,之后遗忘的信息量逐渐减少。所以杨鹏设计了一个将初背的单词,在当天(第1天),第2、4、8、15、30天分别进行复习的办法。新背的单词复习密度开始时最集中,之后逐渐减弱。其实,杨鹏背词法就是一个“捡回”即将遗忘单词的办法。
      杨鹏此法一旦开始,就不能回头,不能停顿,至少要完成所有单词的第一遍初背以及最后几个list的4天内的复习,否则那些初背的单词,会因为停顿而无法在当天和第2、4天得到复习巩固。而初背单词当天和之后两天的复习,是最重要的甚至比初背本身还重要。根据记忆曲线,一次性记忆了信息之后,在头两天内如果不进行复习记忆,信息将会被遗忘七成以上!所以,此法一旦施展,就要一往直前,不完成誓不罢休,否则那些得不到复习的单词,又将重新再起炉灶记忆。而此法进行到第8天,将开始艰难的日子,因为每天要复习4倍于新背单词的量,第15之后,则是5倍于新背单词的量,大家要有心理准备。
      杨鹏背词法除了以上“宏观”的多天复习之外,还有一个“微观”的背单词法主要用于单词的初背即连续花五分钟背十个单词,然后花半分多钟,迅速把背过的单词扫一遍,利用大脑短期重复记忆巩固这五分钟的成果,然后又花五分钟背十个单词并再用半分多种复习,直到大约半个小时后,背了差不多五、六十个单词,此时第一个记忆周期已到,要将半小时内背过的单词花三分钟左右复习一遍,然后开始第二个周期的记忆,继续五分钟、五分钟地背诵,过了大约半小时后,又有大约五、六十个单词背好了,而此时也应该是一个list的单词背完的时候请再花三、五分钟,将背过的单词全部迅速过一遍。(杨鹏的17天,原本是要让考生连续背三小时,每天新背3个list单词,但这对托福考生来说,量比较大了。)
     杨鹏背词法由于要求考生复习当天初记的单词,所以初记单词的时间和复习时间至少要间隔半天,让大脑有一个“遗忘”的机会,才好把即将遗忘的单词“捡回来”。而复习前几天单词的任务,可以和复习当天初背单词的任务合并进行。
      杨鹏背单词法对于单词的复习,也有要求,就是把单词的中文意思遮盖住(可以自己找一张电话卡什么的),尽量回忆起中文单词的意思,虽然比同时看中英文累很多,但效果也好很多。实在记忆不起才看,但此时,要给这个自己难以背出的单词做个记号,这其实是宝贵的财富,因为这是针对自己情况建立起的难背单词库,而且,以后复习时若还是背不出,再做记号,记号越多的单词,就是自己最难背最需要花力气的单词。(当然,这是将所有单词一视同认而言,实在没时间背词的朋友只能复习高频词中的难记词了,但初背还是要一视同认地背完一遍词汇书的好。)

然后,我谈一下杨鹏背词法的一些变通情况:
      用杨鹏17天背词法初背GRE单词,基本上就是一种“自虐”行为,因为GRE单词很难,而且后期每天要复习1300到1700多个单词,决不是一件容易的事。GRE的词汇书,也就是常说的红宝书,2005版的大约有8000个词汇,51个list,每个list约150个词汇,用杨鹏初背法,将要1个半小时才能初背一个list,每天初背list要4个半小时。这还不算每天更多的要复习的单词。所以目前,针对背诵GRE单词,很多考生也采取便通的办法:
      第一种是减小每天初背的量(其实也减小了后期每日复习的量),即每天初背2个list,这样哪怕后期要复习5倍初背的量,也只有10个list,甚至每天只背一个list,当然,这就要51天才初背第一遍。
      第二种,就是不按照杨鹏的办法初背,自己爱怎么初背就怎么背,不过最好也不断复习一下以前背过的单词。等到所有单词都背过一遍,有了印象,再严格按照杨鹏背词法进行背诵。不过同样也要“初背”和复习,因为之前松散的初背效率很低,大量单词被遗忘,但也好歹“看着脸熟”。

好了,现在再结合我个人经验谈一下怎么用此法背诵托福单词:
      王玉梅共有词汇5000多个,40个list,平均每个list近130个(左侧绿色的核心词汇加上打*的扩展词汇)。
      对于新人(四级水平)来说可以每天新背一个list,但一定要当天、第2、4、8、15、30天进行复习,这也是所有用杨鹏背词法背单词的朋友需要遵守的复习法则。托福词汇不是太难,有四级水平,每天初背一个list并严格复习是应该能坚持下去的,40天所有单词可以背完第一遍(当然复习还没有结束)。一般不用自己先松散看一遍再用杨鹏背词法背。
      对于基础较好的朋友,记忆力较好的朋友,考过老托福的朋友,可以每天初背2个甚至3个list,并严格按照杨鹏背词法复习,分别可以在第20天,第14天完成所有单词的一遍初背,同样,复习还要继续。
      如果是使用其他词汇书,比如张红岩、俞敏洪、李笑来词汇书的朋友,同样可以根据每个list的量和自己的情况,决定每天初背单词的量。一般建议新人每天初背100-160个,基础好的朋友可以初背200-400个。但复习同样要严格执行,这是杨鹏背词法的核心。

决定了每天初背单词的量之后,就可以按照杨鹏背词法当天、第2、4、8、15、30天复习单词的办法,指定一张背词日程表


我个人还有一个建议,就是为了督促自己,请在词汇书每一个list开头一页的顶端,自己写上一列初背和复习的日期,比如list1是9月1日初背,那么就有了下图:


图片点击可在新窗口打开查看此主题相关图片如下:
图片点击可在新窗口打开查看


      也就是把每个list上都标注初背日期和6个复习的日期,完成了相应的背诵,才在日期上打勾或画圈,表示任务执行完毕。这样可以督促自己严格完成计划。
      我之所以推荐王玉梅的单词书,除了词汇量大,还因为可以和《新东方背单词4》形成较好搭配(“新4”中的托福词库和王玉梅书最为接近,都有5000出头的词汇。不过建议初背单词还是用词汇书,一般效果比较好,而复习的话,可以用软件。不过用软件复习要注意一点,就是要使用“词义回想”功能,把中文意思隐去,让大脑尽量回忆单词的中文意思,复习效果会比较好,遇到自己想不出的单词,就把难度系数加一。
      对于长时间用软件复习单词或接连数小时看词汇书的朋友,最好准备瓶润眼液之类的眼药水,让眼睛保持一定的湿润很重要,确切说是要宝重身体。
      另外,利用MP3复习,也是不错的手段,因为托福单词不仅要记住形象,也要能听得出(听力中有很多比较专业性的学术词汇)。所以在按照杨鹏背词法之余,听听MP3,也是补充单词听力形象的好办法。等到了考前几周的时候,单词应该很熟了,这时可以用MP3进行“速忆”训练。具体方法是把词汇书放在一旁备用/备查,自己只听MP3,一个list一个list的听,最好一口气连听半小时。在听的过程中,每当听到一个英语单词,就要在短短的一秒左右的间隔里,也就是中文意思说出之前,迅速回忆起该单词的中文意思,就算回忆不出,随之而来的中文意思语音也会告诉你答案,但请不要轻易暂停,一路听下去,至少完成一个list以后再停下来,在词汇书上找到自己刚才没想出中文意思的单词做记号。冲刺阶段用此法复习单词,效率极高。就算是王玉梅的5000多词汇,上午复习半小时MP3,下午再复习半小时MP3,四天就能搞定!
      说到MP3,再向大家推荐一款背景音乐,罗扎诺夫记忆背景音乐。(说明:每个人的大脑都有四个主要脑电波在运作,这四种脑电波,可用电子脑电图仪测量到。而我们大脑的四种脑电波中最适合潜意识活动的就是α波,只有α波状态才是取得高效记忆的最好状态。α波状态促进灵感,加快资料收集,增强记忆。根据这一发现,推荐世界著名快速学习法专家罗扎诺夫推荐的专用于外语学习的特选音乐)。
当然,觉得完全安静环境下才能背诵的朋友,也可以不用。
      最后,由于用词汇书背单词,难免对单词的印象会比较孤立,所以最好同时做些题目,巩固一下。对于新人来说,前几周可以做《新托福考试阅读技能与考点精练》,除了巩固词汇,还可以为阅读打下扎实的基础,还有听力和写作/口语的入门作用。基础较好的朋友,可以直接在背词的同时,做老托福真题,longman教程甚至冲刺用的Delta教程(最好只做其中的单项练习,综合练习留着冲刺用)。另外,不论基础如何,李笑来的TWE185范文也几乎是必看的辅导材料,因为不仅可以用来巩固词汇书的词汇,还可以用来收集/积累写作、口语的常用词汇(这些词汇是要能拼写或者朗读的)。

      由于每个人都有自己的特点,所以本文所列的方法,还请大家根据自己的情况,自行制定一个适合自己的背词方案。如果大家有什么意见或建议,欢迎跟贴讨论。

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《IBT备考导航》之三十三:如何在新托福口语考试中做笔记
   众所周知,为了模拟北美大学课堂的学术气氛和学生在校园生活的方方面面,新托福考试的口语部分首次允许考生做课堂笔记(笔记考完要上交,但笔记不算分)、并要求考生能够发表自己的意见和看法,而且必须具备对教授推荐的参考书写出读书报告、阐明自己观点的能力以及其他处理校园生活中可能遇到的各种情况的能力。本文拟对新托福口语考试(包括独立口语任务和综合口语任务)中如何做笔记的问题做深人地分析和探讨。 

Note-taking in the Independent Task
    该部分要求考生就某一自己熟悉的话题阐述自己的观点。一类问题是自由回答间题(Free-choice Response),如:If you could have any job in the world, what would it be? Use details to support your. response;另一类是选择类问题(Paired-choice Response),如:Do you like to try new kinds of food or eat the same kind of food all the time? Use details and examples to support your response,准备时间为15秒,回答问题时间为45秒。问题会被朗读出来,且同时出现在屏幕上。考生可以不用理会电脑的朗读,迅速阅读完问题。这样可以争取大概5秒,那么在这大约20秒内,考生可在草稿纸上迅速记下自己所要表达的关键信息。这里记笔记的方法为“TST表格”。TST ( Topic-Supporting ideas--Transitions)意思是考生须在草稿纸上用一到两个词写下欲表达的Topic(主题),Supporting ideas(分论点)和Transitions(信号词)。下面试举一例: 

Question:
    
       
Where would you want to be professionally in ten years? Use details to support your response. 
       
       
考生应迅速在纸上写下own bus...masterwork com...start等信息见以下TST( Topic—Supporting ideas—Transitions )表格。
    

Topic statement:  own bus... (I would like to own my own business)
Supporting ideas:   ( How I will work toward owning my business)

    
*  master (Will get master's in business )
    
*  work com... (Will work in company while planning my business)
    
*  start (Will start my own business when I am ready)
Transitions: 10 next because 3 within 10 y (可用y代替 years) 

Sample Answer
    
In ten years I would like to win an import business of my own. Next year, I will be starting a master's program in business with a specialization in entrepreneurship. I will be getting this degree because I hope to start my own business and make it successful some day. After I finish my master's degree three years from now, I will most likely take a position in another company for a few years to make some money and to spend some time planning my own business. Within ten years, I hope to own my own company and be on the way to making it a success.
    

再举一例:
    

Question:
    
       
Sometimes students have to write papers. Sometimes they have to give oral presentations. Which activity do you think is better for students, and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.
    
       
考生应迅速在纸上写下papstrong read write examsmore time think deeply等信息。见以下TST( Topic—Supporting ideas—Transitions )表格::
    

Topic: pap (writing papers is better for students)
Supporting ideas: (Why writing papers is better)

    
* strong read write exams (need strong writing skills for reading and writing and prepare for exams)
* more time think deeply   (show understanding for more time to explain and think deeply)
    
Transitions: firstly because, so also 

Sample Answer
    

I think writing papers is better for students. Firstly we need to develop strong writing skills. We go to school mainly to learn reading and writing, so we need a lot of practice. Examinations require a lot of writing, so writing papers is good reparation. Also, I think writing is a better way to show that I understand. When I write a paper, I can think deeply because I have more time to explain my ideas.  

为了给读者更多机会练习使用“TST表格”,特提供一下6个问题供大家练习。 

补充练习:
    

1.  Describe a place that you consider to be beautiful. Explain why certain qualities of this place make it beautiful. Include details and examples to support your explanation.
    

2. Some people relax by staying home. Others relax by going out. Which type of relaxation is better for your and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.-
   

3.  Describe an occasion when you were surprised. What happened to you, and why did you feel surprised? Include details and examples in your explanation.
    

4.  Some students prepare for tests by studying alone. Others prepare for tests by studying with other students or a tutor. Which study method do you think is better, and why? Include details and examples in your explanation.
    

5.What type of home would you like to live in? Describe the characteristics of such a home and explain why you would like to live there. Include details and examples in your explanation.
    

6. Some people exercise early in the morning. Others exercise in the afternoon or evening. Which time of day do you think is better for exercising and why? Include details and examples in your explanation. 

Note-taking in the Integrated Tasks
    

1. Reading—Listening—Speaking
    

3题和第4题以试题中的阅读和听力材料为基础,要求考生回答相关问题。即ReadingListeningSpeaking,具体步骤是首先要求考生在45秒内阅读一篇短文,一般只含一个段落,随后短文隐去,播放一段与短文相关的对话或课堂演讲,其长度大约为1分半钟(比listening section中的材料篇幅要短)。最后,要求考生根据先前阅读的短文和所听到的材料回答相关问题,考生有30秒钟的准备时间,然后进行60秒钟的回答。而第5题和第6题要求考生先听一段听力材料,然后回答相关问题。即Listening-Speaking,听力材料通常有一段是情景对话,另一段是课堂演讲,其长度大约为1分半钟。
   

考生有20秒钟的准备时间,之后进行60秒钟的回答。在综合口语任务里,你所需要记笔记的内容就是在读短文和听材料的过程中记下材料中的“main points”、“examples”、“reasons”等等。.而是否能很快识别“信号词”(Signal Words)成为其中的关键。“信号词”(Signal WordsTransitions)是我们用来“追踪”说话人的思路的词汇,它就像“路标”一样指引着旅行者的方向。有了信号词,我们就知道说话人何时要举例子,何时要下结论,何时要解释原因等等。
   

    1)信号词
   

*信号词的分类

……

2)在阅读(Reading)短文时做笔记
    

在第3和第4题中你会碰到两篇阅读短文,你所需要记笔记的内容就是在读短文的过程中记下材料中的“main point”以及“examples”和“reasons”等等。切忌写下过多的细节,或为了记笔记而忽略了中心思想。见下例(注意加黑处的信号词):
                                          
 Isaac Asimov 
       
Isaac Asimov (1920-1992) was an amazing author who wrote an astounding amount of material on an even more astounding variety of subjects. His literary studies included line-by-line analyses of all of the play of Shakespeare; his historical research included works on the history of Greece, the Roman Empire, England, and France; he also wrote well-researched tomes on physics, chemistry, and astronomy. What he is most likely best known for today, however, is science fiction: his Foundation series on a galactic empire inspired by Gibbon's Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and the / Robot series about a future society where humans and robots coexist. In total, Asimov wrote more than 500 books on this wide variety of subjects. 

从信号词我们知道: 
TOPIC OF READING PASSAGE: author Isaac Asimov
     
Main points about Asimov
     
* wrote a huge amount of material (more than 500 books);
     
*wrote on a wide variety of topics (literary analysis, history, physics, chemistry, astronomy, science fiction) 

以下是两篇阅读短文,请迅速识别出其信号词,并做出笔记: 

……

3)在听对话或讲座时做笔记(Listening
    

在听讲座或对话时,你需要关注主要观点(major points)以及为了支撑其观点所使用的例子(examples)和原因(causes 

Listening Passage:
     

(Professor): Now I'm sure you're all wondering how Asimov managed to write so much. Well, the simple answer's that he did almost nothing except writing because that's what he was driven to do.
      
       
Asimov's normal routine was to spend time, a lot of time, writing every day. He usually got up at 6 o'clock in the morning; he was at work writing by 7:30 in the morning, and he wrote until 10 o'clock in the evening. That's a lot of time to spend writing. This desire to spend so much time writing prompted Asimov himself to say "Writing is my only interest. Even speaking is an interruption."
     

TOPIC OF LISTENING PASSAGE: how Asimov wrote so much

Main points about topic:
      
* Asimov wrote from 7: 30 in the morning to 10 o'clock in the evening.
     
* Asimov said,  "Writing is my only interest."  

4)整合笔记,最终开口(Speaking 以上我们讨论过如何在读文章和听材料时做笔记,现在我们已经拥有两份笔记,可以开始答题了,不过答题以前,需要明确以下几点:
    
*你的准备时间为30秒,回答时间为1分钟,回答须同时包括所听的材料和所读文章中的信息;
*在答题时不要涉及个人观点,不要说例如“I think”之类的话。你的回答应该仅仅跟所读的文章和所听的材料有关。
*Reading-Listening-Speaking部分中,可能会问你以下几个向题:
   

复述对话中所涉及到的一个观点
     
       
总结说话人得出某个观点的原因
     
       
描述听力材料中教挽谈及的问题
     
       
解释听力材料与阅读材料的联系
     

*此部分的评分标准
    

听力和阅读材料中提炼出相关信息
     
       
用听力和阅读材料中的适当细节和观点答题
     
       
观点表达前后连贯一致
     
       
表达清晰易懂
     

*30秒钟的准备时间中,请务必仔细阅读问题的题干,听完材料后查阅阅读材料和听力材料的笔记,提炼主要观点和说出支撑论点的23个分论点。

*回答时间为1分钟,时间应该完全够用。语速适中,切记不要着急,请留意时间,你有20秒来展开每一个分论点。

 
*表达必须连贯一致,符合逻辑顺序,适当使用Signal Words, 如下:

 *如欲介绍两个材料中的主要观点:
    
The man's opinion is that...
The woman believes that...
According to the lecture...
The professor made the point that...
The reading states that... 

请看以下例子:
……


备考建议

     
词汇准备:建立流畅表达所需要的词汇,尤其是信号词。信号词的恰当使用会使你的表达更诚畅,更连贯。
发音准备:提高发音的同时,尤其要主要单词重音和语音语调。
    
录制准备:将自己的声音录下来,听一听有什么问题。
    
笔记准备:平时多听、多看大学讲座、纪录片和英语新闻,边听边做笔记,尽量抓住材料的主题。

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《IBT备考导航》之三十四:新托福考前冲刺方略
  一、新托福考试阅读部分冲刺方略

   在新托福阅读部分最后的冲刺阶段,我们所需要做的事情有三件。第一件事情就是每天读3篇文章,保持相应的语感;第二件事情就是要加强对每一种题型特点和解答方法的熟练掌握;第三件事情就是熟练掌握下面的八种基本阅读策略。

  Preview

  花上一分钟的时间做以下三件事情:

  •浏览文章的题目和第一段内容;
  •阅读文章之后的每一段的内容;
  •阅读文章的最后一句话。

  Read faster

  •学会使用眼睛余光(peripheral vision)覆盖信息;
  •牢记阅读的是每一句话或每一段话的意思和作者用意,决不是阅读每一个单词的意思。

  Use contexts

  •熟练掌握TOEFL基本的核心词汇;
  •学会从周围的词汇和语法现象中猜测词义。

  Make inferences

  •学会定位文章中的逻辑细节,即论据;
  •学会利用各种结构指示词和全文的中心(focus)判断细节的作用。

  Skim and Scan

  •先读题干,确定定位方向;
  •迅速找到箭头标示的段落或有阴影的文字;
  •通过相同内容词汇或同义词汇确定具体定位目标;
  •使用排除法三原则做题。

  Make Connections

  •注意TOEFL文章行文中的特殊过渡方式:重复(repetition);
  •注意TOEFL文章中的前后呼应;
  •注意TOEFL文章中的其它5种常见过渡方式(transitional methods)。

  Summarize

  •仔细阅读文章的第一段;
  •了解学术化文章的基本结构,注意plan of development现象,通常是一个主要观点有三个重要点支持,而每个段落的中心又会有二到四个要点支持。

  Taking Notes

  •注意时间和笔记有效性的平衡。


   
  二、新托福考试听力部分冲刺方略

   经过了半年的千呼万唤,新托福IBT终于将于9月15日在中国大陆地区的第一次开考。虽然到目前为止大家对新托福考试的内容和形式已经不再陌生,但由于没有任何真题,马上要参加考试的同学心里难免忐忑。本文将结合ETS官方指南和新托福培训的授课经验,给大家详细介绍新托福考试听力部分的可操作性冲刺方略,希望在最后冲刺阶段能对同学们有所帮助。

  (一)六种题型易考点极其技巧点睛:

  所谓最大的技巧就是“反命题”,知己知彼,才能百战不殆。想要在听力部分取得高分,不仅是在刚开始接触IBT听力时,乃至当临考的冲刺阶段在做官方样题时,也一定要将ETS的出题思路和考核要点贯彻始终。

  1主旨题

   一个段子的主旨往往出现在文章引言和开头处,而重复的最多往往一定是主旨!在听课堂演讲等学术性题目时,一定要首先把握文章最核心的主旨,主旨考题选项中过于细节的往往是错误选项;

   2细节题

   主旨题和细节题主要是考察考生对于基本信息的理解能力(basic comprehension),除此之外ETS所要考察考生的另外两种能力分别是对于语用信息的理解(pragmatic understanding)和整合信息、对全文结构把握的能力(connecting information)。而基本信息的理解就占到50%的比重,可见主旨题和细节题的重要性。

   对于细节题,大家不要走入误区,觉得所有的细节100%会考到,所以去关注每一个小的细节点,以至于舍本逐末,只见树木,不见森林。对于细节题,大家要把握两个原则:第一、ETS只会考察我们和主旨有关的重要细节。过于偏细节的实在没有听到,大可不必惋惜,影响后面的发挥;第二,牢牢把握住往往和考点向联系的重要信号词。比如说表示因果的accordingly, thus等词对应于细节题中常考察的因果题。而常见的和信号词相关的考点有逻辑时间顺序、举例、列举、相似或者对比、转折、强调、因果、总结、定义、建议、数字等。

   3功能/目的题

   该题型类似于主旨题,对于任何一个长段子,首先务必要把握的是文章的主旨和结构,只有主旨确定了,才有可能去理解细节,做推断。

   4态度/ 推断

   对话中的态度题要注意通过语气、语调、重读来推测;而由于演讲中的内容相对学术和客观,所以演讲中的态度题要注意通过形容词和副词的褒贬色彩来确定说话者的主观意图。

推断题把握一条原则:正确选项往往不是文章中的直接表述,可能通过同意互换的方式来设置陷阱,迷惑考生。

   5组织结构题 / 分类信息题

   6内容连接题 / 排序题

   最后的五六两种题型都是考察考生对于全文结构的一个综合把握,是对考生能力的最高要求,但是它同样也是基于对文章主旨把握的基础之上的。要做好这两种题型,大家在最后一周一定要强化熟练自己记笔记的能力。

   笔记不是越全越好,因为没有那么多时间,而且也容易遗漏新的信息;当然也不要走极端不记笔记,因为4~6分钟的课堂演讲绝对超过了人脑的瞬时记忆负荷。关于笔记大家把握三个原则:一、在确定主旨的前提下关注信号词后面的重点词(前面细节题已做介绍);二、但凡分类信息题笔记中注意记录按什么分类,以及每一类的特征;三、排序题的笔记注意表明步骤和逻辑顺序信号词后的内容。对于“笔记”是新托福考试听力的重中之重,大家在最后几天一定要多加操练,熟能生巧。

  (二)最后冲刺复习方法和时间安排:

   对于长对话部分,大家注意复习和校园生活有关的场景,尤其要注意比较学术的场景,比如论文场景、图书馆场景(moratorium-罚金暂缓)等。熟悉场景的常考词汇和常考思路;对于课堂演讲部分,方法和题型前面已经介绍很多了,应该作为最后冲刺的重点。

   因为时间有限,所以建议大家把时间都花在课堂演讲部分,至少每天练习3小时听力,材料的选择可以是官方指南、朗文、近年老托福PART C部分(除了时间过短之外,是很好的练习材料)。一定要做笔记!纪录关键重点词(因为往往和考点有关)!可以每天听抄一篇,然后跟读,培养语感!时间足够充裕的同学,可以看看段子的专业词汇。

  (三)注意事项:

   1、一定要做笔记,最后几天的听力强化练习要结合笔记。

   2、一定要在一个单位时间内一次性听一个半小时以上的听力,建议一个单位时间听二个小时。如果没有全真模拟过,会影响最后听力成绩的发挥。

   3、一定要做官方指南上的样题!官方指南上的样题可以作为上考场之前的模考材料,最后查漏补缺,有的放矢,才能胸有成竹。

   4、一定点击了NEXT键,再点击OK键,即确认了所选答案。一旦点击OK键,考生将无法再查看做过的试题。考试时也要注意自己的答题速度。
  
  三、新托福考试口语部分冲刺方略

   了解新托福考试的同学知道,新托福口语考察的不是生存英语,而是语言能力,逻辑思维和论证能力。在备考的过程中,除了要全面提高基本功外,还要学习并反复操练应试技巧。

   在最后的冲刺阶段,口语每天仍需坚持1~2小时练习。练习的重点可以放在如何在45秒内描述事物或对某个观点看法的能力上,因为这是唯一可以准备而且相对简单的部分。具体练习题目可参考《新托福考试官方指南》以及培训老师指定的题目。由于第一、二题考察的是快速反应及应答的能力,考生一定要事先准备30个左右的段子,以便在考场上举一反三,有话可说。万一考题不是准备好的内容,一看到考题,15秒内立即想出三个不同的形容词或词组,作为三层理由,然后举一两个例子稍微展开下即可,因此考生至少要准备100个常用的形容词,一些“百搭”经典的理由、例子。

   口语三至六题还是与听力练习相结合。从某种意义上讲,这部分的得分多少取决于考生听力功底。在听的过程中,记下一些关键词(形容词,动词,数字,例子),20-30秒内将笔记整理标号,在60秒内“读”出答案就可以了。除了背一些开头语和口语模板之外,还可以准备一些常见过渡词(the first reason is, besides, in my opinion)来显现各个要点之间的连贯性。这部分练习应在平时重点演练,在冲刺阶段再练练眼,耳,口,手并用,保持一种考试状态。
  
   在最后几天内,考生可以做几套新托福网考模拟试题或者ETS官方网站上的收费考题,熟悉界面、话筒。在人机“对话”的过程中,特别要控制答题时间,在有限的时间内进行充分的回答。只要平时多练习,考试时保持平和的心态(切忌太紧张),相信在口语部分必会得到理想的分数!

  四、新托福考试作文部分冲刺方略

   新托福作文包括两个部分,一是综合写作部分,即integrated task,另一部分为独立写作部分,即independent task.

   对于综合写作部分,由于考察的TOPIC一定是一些academic topic,一般考生不会太熟悉,因此,考生在锤炼其听力和阅读的基本功的基础上,应集中强化突破在lecture里和reading 中记笔记的能力.尤其应注重对阅读文章结构和思路的清晰把握.听力材料一般都针对阅读文章的观点或细节进行反驳,反驳的切入点多为三点. 听力反驳的要点一般都在阅读材料中明确提及,一般不会涉及阅读中完全未涉及的细节.因此,在阅读做笔记的过程中,要读清作者的论证思路,这样在听听力时才能够有的放矢,在听力材料播放过程中准确抓住我们需要的细节并做简单的笔记. 在具体写作的过程中,注意以听力材料中反驳的要点为主线组织全文结构,每一个要点的阐述过程中注意与阅读中的相关细节或观点关联. 各段落的结构及一些套路性的语言事先应该准备好。

   对于独立写作部分,极其类似于老TOEFL中的TWE. 该部分的写作特别应注重结构.开头段,中间段及结尾段落的常见结构及写法要很熟悉.在结构"八股"的同时,应避免文章内容的千篇一律.文章展开的理由和层次尽可能的要personal一些,尽量不要都去套用一些空乏的东西. 展开的层次和理由一定要有细节支持,细节可以是例子,解释,对比等. 同时,文章的主题一定要明确,突出.动笔之前一定要花两三分钟把提纲事先列好.在内容充实的前提下,文章字数尽可能多写一些。最后,语言要做到多样.用词句式要多变。

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《IBT备考导航》之三十五:北美留学考试英文作文满分速成法

  在大学的考G考T的经验以及两年寒假在北京新东方的刻苦培训,加上半年来在上海新东方作文教学,使我更加深刻地明白了作文的写作的确存在短期突破的可能性与必要性。

  记得在大学时代,各个大学的BBS上包括我们华工就广为流传着“作文魔板”这个名词,没有自己体会过用套路写作的人其实根本不可能理解到这其中的奥秘,因为有的人说背“魔板”是不可能得到高分的,而另一些人却说不背“魔板”得到的高分是没有“性价比”的。实际上,就我个人而言,我认为魔板的背诵是非常必要的,但绝对不是能是盲目的!

  大家都知道,我们中国人其实在英语的听说读写四个环节上最薄弱的就是输出的两个能力:说和写;而最强的就是输入的两个能力:读和听。而如果我们想在出国的道路上成为佼佼者,那么在保持传统强项的同时是否应该特别加强一下我们的口语和写作能力呢?

  而根据我考TSE(TEST OF SPOKEN ENGLISH)的经验,其实口语考试分数的高低(注意这里仅仅是指考试分数)几乎完全取决于你到底背了多少段落。因为口语的TOPIC是覆盖面非常广泛的:教育、文化、历史、生物、科技、艺术等等,所以这就从客观上决定了考生必须背大量的段落,而实际上背的过程中也就是把不涉及过于具体内容的话背下来,到考试的时候再把听到或看到题目要求的具体内容往里面加。一定要注意是从背具体的段落到提炼抽象的魔板最后再回到具体的段落:

  ·具体

  ·抽象

  ·具体

  下面我就分别以新TOFEL的综合部分和GRE/GMAT作文的“阿狗”部分为例分别给大家分享一下我个人对于满分的一些理解。

  TOEFL iBT

  其实新托福加了综合部分以后,我个人认为是降低了难度。因为原来老托福的作文作为新托福作文的独立部分并没有什么太大的改变,而且大家都知道作文水平的提高不是一朝一夕的事情,那么我刚才说的不能盲目就是指大家不能在这个需要体现真正写作水平的部分去背段落,因为这个是会被认为是舞弊行为的。那么在综合、独立各占15分的时候,我们如果能把握住任何一个部分的高分实际上平均下来的分数就不会低。而综合部分由于是先读一篇文章,再听一段录音,然后让我们谈文章与录音的相互关系,而不用发表自己的观点这一题目本身的客观要求就决定了它是可以背由固定标准语句组成的“魔板”的。这正如研究生入学考试英语写作的小作文和雅思写作的小作文一样是有固定套路的。比如录音讲座要么就是质疑或者反驳了阅读段落;要么就是支持或者加强了阅读段落,所以只需要把相关描述质疑或者反驳与描述支持或者加强的固定语句背下来就可以得到一个相对较高的分数,如果考生同时又把相关要点表达准确和清楚了的话,那么满分是完全可能的。当综合部分有15分在手的时候,独立部分只要及格那么就能至少获得24分的作文高分!

  比如以下两个“魔板“是分别描述质疑或者反驳以及支持或者加强的:

  Integrated Writing Task

  How the Integrated Writing Task is phrased:

  If the lecture challenges the information in the reading passage, the writing task will usually be phrased in one of the following ways:

  ØSummarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they cast doubt on specific points made in the reading passage.

  ØSummarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to explain how they challenge specific claims/arguments made in the reading passage.

  ØSummarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they answer the problems raised in the reading passage.

  Showing Challenge

  In the lecture, the professor made several points about______________. The professor argues that__________________.

  However, the reading contends that________________.

  The professor’s lecture casts doubts on the reading by using a number of points that are contrary to___________________________.

  The first point that the professor uses to cast doubt on the reading is that_________________.

  According to the professor,________________________________.

  _______________ differs from the reading in that the reading states _______________________________.

  The point made by the professor casts doubt on the reading because_______________________.

  Another point that the professor uses to casts doubt on the reading is ___________________________________.

  The professor claims that______________________________________.

  However, the reading states _____________________________________.

  This point is contradicted by_____________________________________.

  Finally, the professor stated that, on the contrary of the reading, _____________________________________.

  In other words,______________________________________.

  This directly contradicts what the reading passage indicates, because___________________________.

  In conclusion, the points made in the lecture contradict the reading.

  _________________and_______________ demonstrate that ___________is in doubt.

  If the lecture supports or strengthens the information in the reading passage, the writing task will usually be phrased in one of the following ways:

  ØSummarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they support the explanations in the reading passage.

  ØSummarize the points made in the lecture, being sure to specifically explain how they strengthen specific points made in the reading passage.

  Showing support

  In the lecture, the professor made several points about_______________.

  The professor argues that______________________________.

  The points made by the professor agree with________________.

  In fact, the examples used by the professor support_________________.

  The first point that the professor uses to support the reading is that_______________________.

  According to the professor,_____________________________.

  _______________________supports the reading, which holds that_______________________.

  The point made by the professor supports the reading because_____________________.

  Furthermore, the professor bolsters the reading by stating that_______________.

  The professor claims that_________________________________.

  This point agrees with the reading, which contends that______________.

  __________________ shows the truth of the reading because___________.

  Finally, the professor stated that, in support of the reading, ______________________________.

  Specifically,__________________________________________.

  This perfectly reinforced what the reading passage indicates, because___________________________.

  In conclusion, the points made in the lecture support the reading.

  ________________ and ________________________demonstrate that ________________________is invalid.

  接下来,我将以如下例子来告诉大家如果提炼“魔板”:

  Getting the Templates

  The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the behavior of stags. The professor shows how the actions of animal can be interpreted in different ways. For example, some people interpret the stag’s actions as being for the “good of the species,” but the professor shows that the stag is actually acting in self-interest. This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that the crickets’ behavior can be interpreted as helping only individual crickets and not the group as a whole. The professor then talks about the results of the experiment, which seems to indicate the crickets are acting only in self-interest.

  Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about the intelligence of animals and insects. As he states, it would seem to require a lot of intelligence to evaluate how a behavior will affect an entire species. This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely; a cricket is probably unable to think of the consequences of its actions. It is more likely that the cricket is only acting out of self-preservation, as the professor indicates.

  The first point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about__________________________________.

  The professor shows that_____________________________________.

  For example, ______________________________, but the professor shows that_______________________________________.

  This casts doubt on the reading because it appears that_________________________________.

  The professor then talks about_________________________, which seems to indicate that___________________________.

  Another point the professor makes that casts doubt on the reading is his point about__________________________________.

  As he states, it would seem to___________________________.

  This makes the explanation in the reading seem less likely;_____________________________________.

  It is more likely that________________________, ad the professor indicates.

  实际上,大家从上面这个例子就可以发现“魔板”的提取过程就是这样的:

  ·先认真读完一篇满分范文

  ·再用笔划掉其中涉及题目具体内容的部分

  ·最后把余下来的部分抄写下来即可

  但“魔板”做出来后只是做了一小半工作,大家还必须学会如何往里面填空,实际上最简单的方法就是看着题目把具体内容自己填进去,然后跟范文对比,找出填空的精华技巧所在,因为在后半部分的GRE/GMAT中我还会详细讲解,所以这里只是先告诉大家这样一个简单方法。

  大家如果想在今后新托福的考试中作文部分有所突破,那么就应该按照我这个提炼“魔板”的方法,去至少提炼20篇左右的满分范文,再加以有机排列组合成自己独特的考试“魔板”,最后进行集中填空,那么新托福作文25分将不再是神话。


GRE/GMAT

  下面,我将再用GRE/GMAT的作文填空法来帮大家强化“魔板”的方法以及填空的概念。

  其实跟新托福一样,GRE/GMAT中作文也分为两个部分:“一休”和“阿狗”。那么这两个部分也是同等重要,而且一个难以短期突破,一个只能短期突破,所以“魔板”的作用就在这里显示出来了。“阿狗”由于是驳论文,不需要发表考生自己的观点,只需要考生指出段落的逻辑错误即可,那么专门用来写驳论文的反驳式段落就显得非常重要,而我们大家都没有学过如何去写驳论文,所以可以说不背“魔板”基本就不可能及格。而背“魔板”也分高手和水手,所以我个人认为有以下三重境界:

  ·知道如何提炼“魔板”

  ·知道需要将提炼的“魔板”排列组合成自己的考试“魔板”

  ·知道怎么往“魔板”里正确、恰当地填空

  只有达到这三重境界的全部才可能获得满分。下面我将以几个例子来巩固“魔板”的提炼方法以及重点介绍如何填空,而排列组合由于非常简单而且因人而异,这里就不再介绍,有问题可以发邮件跟我交流。

  1. 开头段

  In this argument, the arguer concludes that sending the mechanics of GAA to a two-week QCS on proper maintenance procedures will automatically lead to improved maintenance and to greater customer satisfaction along with greater profits for the airline. To support the conclusion, the arguer points out that the performance of the maintenance crews in the automobile racing industry improved markedly after their crews had attended the seminar. In addition, the arguer reasons that since the maintenance crews of the automobile racing industry and the mechanics of GAA perform many of the same functions, the airlines will gain similar benefits from the training program. This argument suffers from several critical fallacies.

  In this argument, the arguer recommends that C should advise its citizens to install both air conditioners and fans for cooling in order to reduce the cost of electricity. To justify this claim, the arguer provides the evidence that many citizens of C suffer from the rising costs of electricity. In addition, he cites the result of a recent study that using fans alone costs more than using air conditioners alone, and that using both fans and air conditioners costs less than either using fans or air conditioners alone. A careful examination of this argument would reveal how groundless the conclusion is.

  In this analysis, the arguer claims that P University should offer employment to the spouse of each new faculty member that they hire. To substantiate the conclusion, the arguer cites the example of B College where professors prefer to have their spouse employed in the same geographical area. In addition, the arguer assumes that this offer of possible job for their spouse on the campus, no matter whether it will be accepted, is the only factor that new professors consider in deciding whether to accept a university position. This argument is unconvincing for several critical flaws.

  In this argument, the arguer advocates that the C Corporation should hire DF, a family owned local company that offers varied menu of fish and poultry, instead of GT Company, the present supplier of food in C’s employee cafeteria. The recommendation is based on the observation that the GT is expensive, that its prices have kept rising, that it does not serve special diets, and that three employees complained about it. Meanwhile, the arguer assumes D to be a better choice for C because a sample lunch of this company that the arguer happened to taste was delicious. This argument is problematic for two reasons.

  The conclusion in this argument is that F College can expect to increase enrollment by promising to find jobs for students after graduation. In support of this prediction, the arguer claims that college-bound students are increasingly concerned about job prospects after graduation. Moreover, the arguer assumes that this attempt has three benefits: (1) to enable F to compete with more famous schools; (2) to encourage students to start career preparation early; (3) to encourage students to complete their coursework. This argument is fraught with vague, oversimplified and unwarranted assumptions.

  2. 中间段

  First, the argument is based on a false analogy. The arguer simply assumes that airplane mechanics and automobile maintenance crews perform many similar functions, but he does not provide any evidence that their functions are indeed comparable. As we know, the structure, operation and function of airplanes and those of automobiles differ conspicuously. It is true that both the airplane and the automobile need refueling and engine maintenance, but even here there exist fundamental differences: the structure and the building materials of each other’s engines are different, so is the oil they use. Therefore, even though the two-week Quality-Care Seminar proved effective in improving the performance of the maintenance crews in the automobile racing industry, there is no guarantee that it will work just as well for airplane mechanics

  Second, the arguer commits a fallacy of hasty generalization. Even if the maintenance of the airline has been improved as a result of sending its mechanics to the Seminar, which is, of course , unwarranted assumption, it does not follow that there will be greater profits as well as greater customer satisfaction for airline. As we know, customer satisfaction depends on several major factors other than good maintenance of the airplane. For instance, customers are generally concerned about the punctuality, the on-board service, the ticket price, the luggage handling procedure and even the discount, all of which are ignored by the arguer. Besides, the arguer does not provide any solid information concerning how the airplane can improve its profits. Unless Get-Away Airlines can significantly increase its customers or passengers and at the same time cut down its costs, both of which are unknown from this argument, there is no guarantee that it will “inevitably” harvest greater profits. Actually, the arguer’s recommendation of investing in this training program a the only way to increase customer satisfaction an profits would most probably turn out to be ineffective and misleading.

  In the first place, the arguer fails to take into account the geographical factors in the analysis. While we informed that there are wide geographical differences in the nation of Claria, and that many citizens are experiencing rising costs of electricity, the arguer fails to make clear the exact number of those citizens or their percentage in the national population, as well as the geographical distribution of these citizens. If only a small portion of the whole population are experiencing the rising costs of electricity while most familiars do not have similar experience, then the reason might be that the former do not use electricity sparingly. In this case, the rising costs of those families have nothing to do with what kind of electric appliance they use to cool their house. Or if only families living in hot areas are spending more money on cooling, then it is unwise to require citizens living in temperate and frigid zones to install both fans and air conditioners, in the absence of all this information, it is impossible for us to install both fans and air conditioners. In the absence of all this information, it is impossible for us to evaluate the recommended policy that is intended to help every household nationwide to reduce their electricity cost.

  In the second place , the comparison in this argument is incomplete and selective, the arguer discovers that using fans alone is more cost effective than using air conditions alone, and that using both fans and air conditioners are the least expensive way of cooling. However, the arguer fails to provide any information regarding the actual amount of time for using, respectively, fans alone, air conditioners alone, and both fans and air conditioners in those three groups of surveyed families. It is very likely that these three groups of families are located in three very different climatic regions of Claria, and hence the amount of days of the year during which they need to cool their houses varies significantly. Families living in cooler areas of the nation certainly cool their houses for fewer hours and hence use less electricity than families living in hot areas, no matter what cooling appliance they use. Unless we are certain that the surveyed families ling in the same climatic region, or that they need to cool their houses for the same amount of hours in the same year although they live in different regions, which is very unlikely, we have every reason to doubt the trustworthiness of this comparative study. Furthermore on electricity may be using more electricity for purposes other than cooling. Unless the arguer also takes this factor into consideration, the comparison is unconvincing.

  First of all, the argument is based on a hasty generalization. According to the cited studies, professors at Bronston College are happier living in small towns when their spouses are also employed in the local area than when their spouses work in distant areas, which is understandable. This fact tells very little about what actual conditions the professors often consider as important when they choose where to work. Even if we accept the arguer’s assumption that whether their spouse can find a job in the local area Is the only important question that new professors consider when they decide whether to accept is it likely that the professor will consider accepting the university’s offer. Consequently, it is unwarranted to assume that new professors will accept Pierce’s offer whether their spouse can find satisfactory employment in the local area.

  In addition, the arguer fails to consider several other relevant factors that may influence professors’ decision. For instance, since Pierce’s location is not ideal, the pay it offers should be high enough to be attractive. New gifted professors are also concerned about the position they can have and the courses they supposed to teach in the new university. What’s more, what researchers care most about might be the university’s research conditions such as laboratory equipments, adequate research funds, etc.

  Finally, the arguer hints that the morale of Pierce’s entire staff is low, but he fails to analyze the causes. Is it because the management of the university is poor, or because the pay is too low, or because the local area stuffers from economic depression, or because the local environment is severely damaged by industrial pollution? Under these circumstances, offering employment to the spouse would be ineffective at all for the purpose of attracting more new professors. Furthermore, if these problems do exist, even if Pierce succeeds in hiring many of the most gifted teachers and researchers of the country, the general moral of the whole faculty would remain low.

  The major problem with this argument is that the arguer fails to convince us that Cedar’s present supplier the Good-Taste should be fired. First, the fact that the Good-Taste is the second most expensive caterer in the city may be due to its better foods, quality service and high reputation in this industry. Second, the fact that it prices have been rising for the last three years may be due to nationwide inflation or the rising cost in the food industry. Third, the fact that Good- Taste refuses to serve special diets does not indicate that it cannot meet the needs of Cedar Corporation unless the arguer can demonstrate that Good-Taste served special diets at first and now it refuses to do so hence disappointing Cedar’s employees complained, which makes it impossible for us to e valuate the overall service of Good-Taste. Maybe these three people are those few on special diets. Even if they have every reason to complain about the foods or service of the supplier on a certain day, these three people’s opinion lacks the necessary representativeness based on which we can make any general judgment concerning the overall performance of Good-Taste.

  Another point worth considering is the arguer’s hasty generalization. We are informed that Discount serves fish and poultry, but we do not know whether Cedar’s employee all prefer this limited menu. We can believe that one sample lunch that the arguer happened to taste was indeed delicious, but based on this slim information, we can never evaluate the overall performance of Discount.

  One major assumption in short of legitimacy is the causal relationship claimed between college-bound students’ increasing concern abut job prospects after graduation and their expectation on the university to find jobs for them. Students’ increasing concern about job prospects may mean that when they choose which university to go to they prefer those universities that can offer the majors most likely to lead to more job opportunities and higher income after graduation. They may also be more interested in prestigious universities because their students are more competitive and more welcomed in the job market. As is known to everyone, in a market economy, promising to find jobs for students is impractical and hence rather doubtful. This strategy may prove misleading and counterproductive in the end. Instead of promising jobs to students, Foley College should devote its resources and efforts to offering more majors with good job prospects as well as attracting more prestigious professors to enhance its reputation.

  In addition, the conclusion is based on a gratuitous assumption that promising students jobs will make students more conscious in their study. This, however, is unwarranted. When students do not have to worry about their employment after graduation, they feel no pressure in their study; as a result, they will become more passive and dependent and gradually lose the initiative to improve themselves. Although it is more likely that they will complete their coursework, but when they graduate, no company would like to employ them. By then the university’s promise will turn not to be meaningless.

  3. 结尾段

  In summary, the conclusion reached in this argument is in valid and misleading. To make the argument more convincing, the arguer would have to prove that college-bound students are most concerned about the promise of jobs after graduation and the F College can keep its promise in the end. Moreover, I would suspend my judgment about the credibility of the recommendation until the arguer can provide concrete evidence that promising students jobs can actually encourage them to work harder in their study. Otherwise, the arguer is simply begging the question throughout the argument.

  To conclude, the argument is not persuasive as it stands. Before we accept the conclusion, the arguer must present more facts that GT has indeed to meet the requirements of C Corporation. To solidify the argument, the arguer would have to produce more evidence concerning the foods and service of D and how they can better meet the needs of C’s employees.

  As it stands, the argument is not well reasoned. To make it logically acceptable, the arguer would have to demonstrate that an offer of employment to the spouse is the only condition that new professors consider on accepting P’s offer. Additionally, the arguer must provide evidence to rule out other possible causes of the low staff morale at the university.

  To sum up, the conclusion lacks credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support to what the arguer maintains. To strengthen the argument the arguer would have to provide more evidence concerning the percentage of the affected families and their geographical distribution. To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information regarding the electric expense relevant to the actual amount of time for cooling among, respectively, the three groups of households and the amount of electricity used for other purposes in all three groups of families under survey.

  In conclusion, the arguer fails to establish a causal relationship between sending Get-Away’s mechanics to the Quality-Care Seminar and improved maintenance, greater customer satisfaction and greater profits for the airline. To strengthen the argument, the argument, the arguer would have to provide evidence that automobile maintenance and airplane maintenance are similar in every aspect. To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information about the relationship between improved maintenance and greater customer satisfaction along with greater profits.

由以上5篇文章我们可以提炼出以下“魔板”:

  1. In this argument, the arguer concludes that .To support the conclusion, the arguer points out that .In addition, the arguer reasons that .This argument suffers from several critical fallacies.
 
  First, the argument is based on a false analogy.

  Second, the arguer commits a fallacy of hasty generalization.

  In conclusion, the arguer fails to establish a causal relationship between and . To strengthen the argument, the arguer would have to provide evidence that . To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information about .

  2. In this argument, the arguer recommends that . To justify this claim, the arguer provides the evidence that .In addition, he cites the result of recent study that . A careful examination of this argument would reveal how groundless the conclusion is.

  In the first place, the arguer fails to take into account the geographical factors in the analysis.

  In the second place, the comparison in this argument is incomplete and selective.

  To sum up, the conclusion lacks credibility because the evidence cited in the analysis does not lend strong support what the arguer maintains. To strengthen the argument, the arguer have to provide more evidence concerning . To better evaluate the argument, we would need more information regarding .

  3. In this analysis, the arguer claims that . To substantiate the conclusion, the arguer cites . In addition the arguer assumes that . This argument is unconvincing for several critical flaws.

  First of all, the argument is base on a hasty generalization.

  In addition, the arguer fails to consider several other relevant factors that may influence .

  Finally, the arguer hints that , but he fails to analyze the causes.

  As it stands, the argument is not well reasoned. To make it logically acceptable, the arguer would have to demonstrate that . Additionally, the arguer must provide evidence .

  4. In this argument, the arguer advocates that . This recommendation is based on the observation that . Meanwhile, the arguer assumes . This argument is problematic for two reasons.

  The major problem with this argument is that the arguer fails to convince us that .

  Another point worth considering is the arguer’s hasty generalization.

  To conclude, this argument is not persuasive as it stands. Before we accept the conclusion, the arguer must present more facts that . To solidify the argument, the arguer would have to produce more evidence concerning .

  5. The conclusion in this argument is that . In support of this prediction, the arguer claims that . Moreover, the arguer assumes that . This argument is fraught with vague, oversimplified and unwarranted assumptions.

  One major assumption in short of legitimacy is the causal relationship claimed between and .

  In addition, the conclusion is based on a gratuitous assumption that .

  In summary, the conclusion reached in this argument is invalid and misleading. To make the argument more convincing, the arguer would have to prove that . Moreover, I would suspend my judgment about the credibility of the recommendation until the arguer can provide concrete evidence that .

文章最后我就用这2道ARGUMENT真题来让大家体会一下如何填空,由于篇幅有限,所以我直接给出了答案,希望大家在自己练习“满分魔板填空法”的时候先自己按照这两道真题题目本身进行填空,再对照我的标准答案,只有这样才能够体会到“满分魔板填空法”的精髓所在。

  例题一:The following appeared in a memo from the mayor of the town of Hopewell.

  “Two years ago, the town of Ocean View built a new municipal golf course and restore hotel. During the past two years, tourism in Ocean View has increased, new businesses have opened there, and Ocean View’s tax revenues have risen by 30 percent. The best way to improve Hopewell’s economy, and generate additional tax revenues, is to build a golf course and restore hotel similar to those in Ocean View.

  题目结论:末句。

  1. 在两个事物之间进行的弱类比——错误类比(False analogy)/不全面比较或有选择比较(incomplete comparison or selected comparison)

  题目通过与类似事物的比较得出关于某一事物的结论(城市、学校、公司)但表层的共性并不能否定更深层次的差异。/比较两个事物时, 只比较少数几个方面,或只比较对自己的观点有利的方面,同时忽略或压制其他重要方面。

  关键判断词:Similar

  改错模板:The argument relies on what might be a false analogy between OV and H. In order for a new municipal golf course and restore hotel in OV to serve as models which H should emulate, the major must assume that all the relevant circumstances involving the general and initial economy are essentially the same. However this assumption is unwarranted. For example, the argument overlooks the possibility that the increase of OV’s tax revenues was motivated by other factors/concerns besides the new building in OV. Perhaps those in power changed some policies regarding OV’s tax revenues. As for 30 percent, perhaps the starting point is very low. Or perhaps the improvement of OV’s tax revenues is only because a dominant geographical location in OV.

  2.混淆因果关系和相关性(两个现象一起发生)和时间的先后次序(一个现象在另一个现象之后发生)。

  关键判断词:Two years ago/during the past two years

  改错模板:The argument is based on a known correlation between building a new municipal golf course accompanied by a restore hotel and the enhancement of OV’s tax revenues, that the latter is attributable, at least partly, to the former. Yet the correlation alone amounts to scant evidence of the claimed cause-and–effect relationship. Perhaps the growth of OV’s tax revenues can be caused by other factors as well, which are absent in these particular states but present in all the others. Moreover, the argument overlooks the fact that two years doesn’t mean forever. The arguer has not accounted for the possibility that the geographical and demographic differences might even lead to opposite result. If this is the case, then the conclusion that H should follow the example of OV would lack any merits whatsoever.

  3.认为所有事物是恒定的

  关键判断词:Two years ago/during the past two years

  改错模板:The arguer’s claim unfairly infers form OV’s comparatively promotion of tax revenues in the past that H should copy/indiscriminately imitate. Absent evidence to support this inference, it is just as likely that the global economy had been gliding. For that matter, perhaps the OV’s experience would contribute less to H or even nothing. Any of these assumptions, if true, would serve to undermine the claim that H should do the same thing as OV.

  例题二:Now is the time to invest in a PLG franchise so that you can profit from opening one of our gyms in your town. Consider the current trend: PLG is already popular among customers in 500 locations, and national surveys indicate increasing concern with weight loss and physical fitness. Furthermore, last year’s sales of books and magazines on personal health totaled more than $50 million and purchases of home exercise equipment almost doubled. Investing now in a PLG franchise will guarantee a quick profit.

  题目结论:末句。

  1.整体特征不一定适合于群体中的每个个体;同样,局部特征也不能表明整体特征。

  关键判断词:your town,500 locations

  改错模板:The argument assumes that the general trend that PLG is already popular among customers infers the trend in specific regions upon which the argument relies. Yet, the brochure fails to offer any evidence to substantiate this crucial assumption. Absent such evidence, it is just likely that PLG may not be so popular in the proposed town as it in the 500 locations; for that matter, perhaps in the mentioned region the people’s hobbies are just on the contrary, in which event the arguer’s recommendation would amount to especially poor advice.

  2.急于概括:在证据不足的情况下作出普遍的概括

  /因果关系简单化:忽略了因果关系的复杂性:一因到多果/多因合一果

  /错误的两难处境:把复杂的问题简化为非此即彼的两种选择

  改错模板:The recommendation depends on the assumption that no alternative means of influencing people’s concern on personal health are available. Yet no evidence is offered to substantiate this assumption. Admittedly, the last year’s sales of books, magazines and home exercise equipment are some evidence that could ensure a quick profit in some sense. However, it is entirely possible that other relevant factors might result in no profit at all. Perhaps a much quicker profit should result from investing in another program. Without considering and ruling out these and other alternative means of reducing profit, the arguer cannot confidently conclude that PLG franchise is a wise investment.

  3.数据类问题(survey/study/poll)

  (1) What procedure is used?

  调查的结果是否具有代表性(representative),是否遵循了随机性原则(the principal of random ):全体成员有同样的机会(the same opportunity)被抽到不能事先把一部分成员排除在外。

  (2) How large was the sample?

  抽样调查必须保证从调查对象的总体(the whole)中抽取足够大(adequate/sufficient)的样本,否则,调查的结果就缺少可信度(credibility)。

  (3)Are the statistics misleadingly vague?

  调查过程与结果的叙述应该使用明确的数字,如:具体的数字、比例或百分比。而不要模糊如:many, majority,以及不知道底数的百分比。

  (4)Are the statistics complete?

  作者只提供了部分相关数据

  (5)Are the statistics important?

  数据与作者试图证明的假设之间没有必然的联系

  (6)When was the survey conducted?

  调查的时间可能影响结果的代表性如:人们在选举前对政治新闻的兴趣可能变大,中国CCTV-5对NBA火箭队的兴趣等

  关键判断词:National surveys

  (样本不具备代表性)改错模板:(1) One problem with the argument involves the cited statistics about sales of books and magazines. It is unreasonable to draw any conclusions about their sales in the future based on statistics regarding last year’s. Depending on the total number of books and magazines, it is entirely possible that those on personal health are not representative of the whole. For example, perhaps the sales regarding sports totaled more than $50 billion. If so, then the arguer’s recommendation might amount to poor advice for us.

  (收集数据过程有误)改错模板:(2)The survey methodology might be problematic in two aspects. First, we are not informed whether the survey required that respondents choose their concern between alternatives. If it did, then the results might distort the preferences of respondents, who might very well prefer a certain one not provided in the survey. Secondly, we are not informed whether survey responses were anonymous, or even confidential. If they were not, the respondents might have provided responses that they believed those in power would approve of, regardless of whether the responses were truthful. In either event, the survey results would be unreliable for the purpose of drawing any conclusions about people’s real increasing inclination.

  上面我除了给了大家如何填空的秘诀外,还附加了GRE/GMAT ARGUMENT的常见错误的中英文对照,希望能够对大家在今后的北美出国考试道路上有所帮助,由于时间比较紧张,不足之处请大家多多原谅,同时,我更希望各位能多给我提些意见来帮助我在今后的道路中进步。

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《IBT备考导航》之三十六:新航道袁昊老师谈托福口语应试诀窍

春华秋实,花开花谢,转眼间我留美回国已近三年。本来窃以为岁月消磨,已不似当年少年意气,但是还是常常莫名地感动,为那些默默坚持着人生理想的托福学生。很多学生要在周末很冷的早晨六点多就出门等公共汽车,只是为了能够准时赶上上午的课。我总觉得自己有义务为这些可敬的年轻人多做一些事情。所以在从事我喜欢的法律事务(本人是中华人民共和国的执业律师)及讲授托福阅读课程之余,我还想从一名留美青年老海龟的角度,破解一下无聊的托福口语考试,也算是为无数追求理想和尊严的青年学生做一些事。

新托福口语考试得分标准:1、详细具体(空洞的形容词和花哨的句子结构不能得分);
2、词汇量和语法现象要多;3、规定时间内尽可能说快一点,多说一点,信息量大一点。
我深深知道,中国学生缺乏大量的语言环境,在仅有15至30秒的准备时间内要完美地做到以上几点是基本不可能的。那么,是不是要因为一个小小的口语考试就放弃我们在加州的阳光下散步的权利呢?当然不会!既然我们不能依赖于现场发挥,那么就通过平时准备,来大大减低现场难度要求。其核心就是??转化原则,在充分领会转化原则的基础上,创建自己的模板,以精练的短句,清楚的表达为主。

独立口语题破解(一)

新托福口语考试六大题型中的第一种是问你一个你所熟悉的人、地方、东西或者事件,你需要在回答中加入具体的例子和细节。例如:
choose a place you like and explain why you like this place.
请看看袁老师是怎么回答的:
Well, the place I enjoy the most is a small town located in France. I like this small town because it has very charming ocean view. I mean the sky there is so blue and the beach is always full of sunshine. You know how romantic it can ever be, just relax yourself on the beach, when the sun is setting down, when the ocean breeze is blowing and the seabirds are singing.
Of course I like this small French town also because there are many great French restaurants. They offer the best seafood in the world like lobsters and tuna fishes. The most important, I have been benefited a lot from this trip to France because I made friends with some gorgeous French girls. One of them even gave me a little watch as a souvenir of our friendship.

看出奥妙来了吗?
1、这个回答里用的全部是口语化的短句子;
2、按照正常的语速念完正好是45秒;
3、出现了多处非常具体的细节描写(得分点)。
4、有景色描写(beach)、有人物(French girls)、有事件(make friends),有具体事物(a watch)。为何如此设计,等一下就会讲到。
然后让我们换一个题目再看看,还是用这些内容怎么进行回答:
题目:Choose a restaurant you like and explain why you like this restaurant
参考答案:Well, the restaurant I enjoy the most is a French restaurant located on a beautiful beach. I like this small restaurant because it has very charming ocean view. I mean the sky there is so blue and the beach is always full of sunshine. You know how romantic it can ever be, just relax yourself on the beach, when the sun is setting down, the ocean breeze is blowing and the seabirds are singing.
Of course I like this small French restaurant also because it offers the best seafood in the world like lobsters and tuna fishes. The most important, I made friends with some gorgeous French girls in that restaurant. One of them even gave me a little watch as a souvenir of our friendship.

在新托福口语考试中,本题型能够涉及到的范围包括事件、人物、具体事物和地方。现在你是不是开始有些明白为什么袁老师的口语模板要包括人、地、事、物?然后我们再来做一些难度稍大的扩展训练,看看转化原则是怎么能够帮助我们以不变应万变。

Choose an important event/ a favorite activity and give reasons explaining why this event is important/ why this activity is your favorite. 从抽象的事物转化成具体的景色描写

Well, one very important event in my life/my favorite activity is a little trip to France. I like this trip so much because we visited a small French town. The town has very charming ocean view. I mean the sky there is so blue and the beach is always full of sunshine. You know how romantic it can ever be, just relax yourself on the beach, when the sun is setting down, when the ocean breeze is blowing and the seabirds are singing.
Of course I like this little trip to France also because there are many great French restaurants. They offer the best seafood in the world like lobsters and tuna fishes. The most important, I have been benefited a lot from this trip to France because I made friends with some gorgeous French girls. One of them even gave me a little watch as a souvenir of our friendship.

注意一定要有两到三句转化句,也叫点题句,即在文中标注出的句子。
扩展训练:
1. Describe one object that is of special value to you and explain why it is of special value to you. Please include specific examples and details in your explanation.
2. Choose a teacher you like and explain why you like him or her. Include specific details in your statement.
3. Everyone has a goal to fulfill. What’s your goal and explain why you want to fulfill this goal. Please include specific examples and details in your explanation.

(在看下面的参考答案之前,请自己先用转化原则处理一下上面的题目。这几个题目是袁老师精心收集的仿真题,仿真度可以达到90%以上,同学们要好好利用)

参考答案:
1.Well, the object of special value to me is a little watch. 点题,复述原题 the watch was designed for women and one of my French girlfriends gave it to me as a souvenir of our friendship. This little watch is of very special meaning to me because it always reminds me of those days I spent in a beautiful French town located by the beach. My watch is deep blue, as blue as the charming ocean view on the beach. You know how romantic it can ever be, just relax yourself on the beach, when the sun is setting down, when the ocean breeze is blowing and the seabirds are singing.
The most important, I made friends with some gorgeous French girls. One of them gave me this little watch as a gift. I cherish the watch just as much as we cherish our friendship.

2.Well, the teacher I admire so much is a gorgeous French lady. She was from a beautiful French small town located by the beach. She has very charming deep blue eyes, as blue as the ocean view on the beach. I admire her so much because she is not only a teacher to me but also a very good friend. Last summer, she invited me to travel to her hometown. You know how romantic it can ever be, just relax yourself on the beach, when the sun is setting down, when the ocean breeze is blowing and the seabirds are singing.
Also, she brought me to some restaurants offering the best seafood such as lobsters and tuna fishes. Finally, she gave me a little watch as the souvenir of our friendship.

3. Ever since I was a kid, I had a dream to travel to France. My parents told me that there is a little French town located by the beach. It has very charming ocean view. They told me the sky there is so blue and the beach is always full of sunshine. You know how romantic it can ever be, just relax yourself on the beach, when the sun is setting down, when the ocean breeze is blowing and the seabirds are singing.
Of course I want to travel to this small French town also because there are many great French restaurants. They offer the best seafood in the world like lobsters and tuna fishes. The most important, there is a good chance to make friends with some gorgeous French girls.

同学们请谨记一点,袁老师提供的这个模板只是给大家一个参考思路,每个人都要根据自己的具体情况变换模板中的内容,并固定成自己的语言,在地点、事件、人物、事物四个方面多做转化练习。如果只是一味的机械照搬,只能产生一种戏剧化的结果:ETS的老头子们会惊讶的发现原来所有的中国女孩都爱美丽的法国女郎;所有的中国男孩子一辈子的梦想就是到法国乡下的小酒馆里等人送手表!

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《IBT备考导航》之三十七:新航道李传伟老师详解IBT阅读

笔者对于国内外考试研究多年,除了著有相关书籍外,还亲自教授。关于托福考试,曾与人合著《TOEFL阅读高分对策》,成为坊间流行的参考书。蛰居剑桥期间,利用ETS出版的新托福资料,加上多家著名出版机构的新托福资料,对新托福进行了深入研究,并将研究成果证之于实践,辅导新托福考生,效果良好。为了惠及更多的考生,今将研究成果公之于众。首先推出的是阅读,笔者将结合新托福样题(ETS官方网站上有),对新托福的几种题型进行分析,给出正确的做题方法。这次分析的题型是推理题。


一、 推理题的标志

推理题的题干中一般含有infer, imply, most likely, least likely, probably等词,分为有共性的推理题和无共性的推理题两大类。

二、 推理题的做法

对于无共性的推理题,也就是题干中无线索的,一般使用排除法,即根据各个选项的关键词回原文定位,通过排除法得出正确答案。

对于有共性的推理题,也就是题干中有线索的,可以先圈定题干中的关键词,根据关键词回原文定位,然后进行推理。推理题主要有下列思路:

1. 一般对比推理

ETS设计推理题的手段不多,根据两个事物的对比特征出题是其中之一。问其中一个事物的特征时,只要将与之形成对比的另一个事物的特征否定掉就可以了。例如:

It should be obvious that cetaceans?whales, porpoises, and dolphins?are mammals. They breathe through lungs, not through gills, and give birth to live young. Their streamlined bodies, the absence of hind legs, and the presence of a fluke and blowhole cannot disguise their affinities with land-dwelling mammals. However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, and walruses whose limbs are functional both on land and at sea), it is not easy to envision what the first whales looked like.


2. Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about early sea otters?

 It is not difficult to imagine what they looked like.

 There were great numbers of them.

 They lived in the sea only.

 They did not leave many fossil remains.


根据关键词sea otters定位第四句:However, unlike the cases of sea otters and pinnipeds…,由原文的unlike可知sea otters和pinnipeds两种动物与whales形成对比,而且很难想象原始的whales的样子;根据“一般对比推理”思路, 可以推出“原始的sea otters的样子不难想象”。第一个选项表达了此意,为正确答案。


2. 时间对比推理

这种思路常被考到。在这种推理中,一般有两个形成对比的时间段,它们所具有的特征一般相反。当题干问一个时间段的特征时,只要将与之相反的时间段的特征否定掉就可以了。

例一:

Basic to any understanding of Canada in the 20 years after the Second World War is the country’s impressive population growth….

…It appeared that Canada was once more falling in step with the trend toward smaller families that had occurred all through the Western world since the time of the Industrial Revolution.

It can be inferred from the passage that before the Industrial Revolution

(A) families were larger.

(B) population statistics were unreliable.

(C) the population grew steadily.

(D) economic conditions were bad.


工业革命之后与工业革命之前两个时间形成对比。既然工业革命之后西方世界的家庭变小了,那么工业革命之前的家庭一定比较大。因此(A)为正确答案。

例二:

Accustomed though we are to speaking of the films made before 1927 as “silent”, the film has never been, in the full sense of the word, silent. From the very beginning, music was regarded as an indispensable accompaniment; when the Lumiere films were shown at the first public film exhibition in the United States in February 1896, they were accompanied by piano improvisations on popular tunes. At first, the music played bore no special relationship to the films; an accompaniment of any kind was sufficient. Within a very short time, however, the incongruity of playing lively music to a solemn film became apparent, and film pianists began to take some care in matching their pieces to the mood of the film.

What can be inferred from the passage about the majority of films made after 1927?

(A) They were truly “silent.”

(B) They were accompanied by symphonic orchestras.

(C) They incorporated the sound of the actors’ voices.

(D) They corresponded to specific musical compositions.

1927年前后形成对比。既然1927年以前的电影只有音乐而没有配音,那么1927年之后的电影一定有。所以(C)为正确答案。


例三:

“…The nineteenth century brought with it a burst of new discoveries and inventions that revolutionized the candle industry and made lighting available to all. In the early-to-mid-nineteenth century, a process was developed to refine tallow (fat from animals )with alkali and sulfuric acid. The result was a product called stearin. Stearin is harder and burns longer than unrefined tallow. This breakthrough meant that it was possible to make tallow candles that would not produce the usual smoke and rancid odor. Stearins were also derived from palm oils, so vegetable waxes as well as animal fats could be used to make candles …”

Which of the following can be inferred from paragraph 1 about candles before the nineteenth century?

 They did not smoke when they were burned.

 They produced a pleasant odor as they burned.

 They were not available to all.

 They contained sulfuric acid.


问题:关于19世纪以前的蜡烛,从第一段可以推出下列哪一点?

这道题的题干中有“19世纪以前”这一时间,由此可见它属于“时间对比推理”思路。原文首句指出:“…19世纪带来了大量新发现和发明,使蜡烛业发生了革命性的变化,所有人都能用蜡烛照明。” 根据“时间对比推理”思路,由于19世纪以前的情况与19世纪形成对比,而19世纪所有人能用蜡烛照明,那么在19世纪之前,并非所有人都能用上蜡烛。第三个选项 “They were not available to all”表达了这一意思,为正确答案。


3.集合概念推理

集合概念推理也可以称之为百分比推断,它指的是在一个集合中,包含两个相对的方面,共同构成一个大的集合。一方所占的比例减少意味着另一方所占比例的增加;反之,一方所占的比例增加意味着另一方所占比例的减少。根据这一思路,可以由集合中一方的数量变化推断另一方的消减。

例一:

A folk culture is small, isolated, cohesive, conservative, nearly self-sufficient group that is homogeneous in custom and race, with a strong family or clan structure and highly developed rituals. …Unaltered folk cultures no longer exist in industrialized countries such as the United States and Canada….

By contrast, a popular culture is a large heterogeneous group, often highly individualistic and constantly changing.

22.What does the author imply about the United States and Canada?

(A) They value folk cultures.

(B) They have no social classes.

(C) They have popular cultures.

(D) They do not value individualism.

原文谈到folk culture 和popular culture两种文化,它们之间形成对比。既然美国和加拿大不再存在folk culture,那么它们就有popular culture。因此(C)为正确答案。


例二:

Both the number and the percentage of people in the United States involved in nonagricultural pursuits expanded rapidly during the half century following the civil war, with some of the most dramatic increases occurring in the domains of transportation, manufacturing, and trade and distribution.

What can be inferred from the passage about the agricultural sector of the economy after the Civil War?

(A) New technological developments had little effect on farmers.

(B) The percentage of the total population working in agriculture declined.

(C) Many farms destroyed in the war were rebuilt after the war.

(D) Farmers achieved new prosperity because of better rural transportation.

文中指出:非农业人口的数量和比例都增加了。由此可知农业人口的数量和比例下降了。所以(B)为正确答案。


注:本文撰写时参考了李传伟已经出版的《TOEFL阅读高分对策》和即将出版的《新托福阅读高分对策》。


题型篇之二:指代题

北京新航道学校 李传伟

一、问题形式
被考的文章中有一个词或词组被加亮,这个词通常是一个代词或名词。指代题的形式如下:
The word (or phrase) X in the passage refers to

二、解题步骤
1.根据解题技巧确定答案
2.代入原文验证,看语义、逻辑和语法上是否通顺

三、基本原则
1.就近指代
所谓就近指代,就是被指代对象通常在指代词前不远处,如本句或上一句中。有时也出现在更前面的一句中。例如,
Large wind farms might also interfere with the flight patterns of migratory birds in certain areas, and they have killed large birds of prey (especially hawks, falcons, and eagles) that prefer to hunt along the same ridge lines that are ideal for wind turbines. The killing of birds of prey by wind turbines has pitted environmentalists who champion wildlife protection against environmentalists who promote renewable wind energy. Researchers are evaluating how serious this problem is and hope to find ways to eliminate or sharply reduce this problem.

The phrase this problem in the passage refers to
interference with the flight patterns of migrating birds in certain areas
building ridge lines that are ideal for wind turbines
the killing of birds of prey by wind turbines
meeting the demands of environmentalists who promote renewable wind energy

本题涉及的是一个词组this problem。寻找这一词组的指代对象时只需向上搜索就行。根据就近原则,前一句中的主语the killing of birds of prey by wind turbines可以初步确定为答案。将其代入原文,符合语义和逻辑,因此第三个选项为正确答案。第一个选项和第三个选项都和this problem相距较远,而且代入时语义和逻辑上不通,因此为干扰选项。

2.数格一致
被指代对象通常与指代词在数(如单数或复数)和格(主格或宾格)两方面相同。如单数代词one指代单数名词,复数代词they指代复数名词。

四、主要思路
1.主从复合句中的指代
在主从复合句中,第二句的代词主语经常指代第一句的名词主语。例如,
The fins are stiff, smooth, and narrow, qualities that also help cut drag. When not in use, the fins are tucked into special grooves or depressions so that they lie flush with the body and do not break up its smooth contours.

The word they in the passage refers to
qualities
fins
grooves
depressions
在这一例子中,从句so that they…中的代词主语they指代主句的名词主语the fins,因此第二个选项为正确答案。

如果主从复合句中一个句子(可以是主句,也可以是从句)使用被动语态,包含被动语态的句子中的主语常指代另一句中的宾语。例如,
Similarly, a plant or animal cannot squander all its energy on growing a big body if none would be left over for reproduction, for this is the surest way to extinction.

The word none in the passage refers to
food
plant or animal
energy
big body
在本例中,if引导的从句使用了被动语态,代词主语none指代前面主句中的宾语energy。因此,第三个选项为正确答案。

2.并列动词中的指代
如果一个句中有两个并列的动词,第二个动词的代词宾语经常指代前一个动词后的名词宾语。例如,
Artists are recognizing the distinction between public and private spaces, and taking that into account when executing their public commissions.

The word “that” in line 27 refers to
(A)contemporary art
(B)opportunity
(C)audience
(D)distinction
句中有两个并列的动词recognizing和 taking (into account),其中recognizing的宾语是distinction,而taking 的宾语是that。根据上述技巧,that指代distinction。因此,(D)为正确答案。

3. 平行结构中的指代
平行结构主要包括some/most/many/such/each…, others…; not only…but also…; the former…the latter等。在这种结构中,平行结构两个部分的两个代词经常指代同一对象:前一句中的名词主语。例如,
In Southwest France in the 1940s, playing children discovered Lascaux Grotto, a series of narrow cave chambers that contain huge prehistoric paintings of animals. Many of these beasts are as large as 16 feet (almost 5 meters). Some follow each other in solemn parades, but others swirl about, sideways and upside down.

The word others in the passage refers to
chambers
paintings
beasts
parades
原文包含平行结构some…others,它们都指代前一句中的名词主语beasts,因此第三个选项为正确答案。

4.所有格的指代
所有格代词经常指代其前面与其最接近的名词。例如,
Folk-made objects give way to their popular equivalent, usually because the popular item is more quickly or cheaply produced, is easier or time saving to use, or lends more prestige to the owner.

The word “their” in line 1 refers to
(A)folk
(B)nations
(C)countries
(D)objects

根据所有格指代的解题技巧,their指代前面位置最近的名词objects,因此(D)为正确答案。

5.指代的接力棒现象
这一现象是指被考的代词对应前面一个相同的代词,而前面的代词指代更前一句中的名词。例如,
While such interviews can be highly entertaining, they are not necessarily an accurate indication of public opinion. First, they reflect the opinions of only those people who appear at a certain location.

The word “they” in line 8 refers to
(A)North Americans
(B)news shows
(C)interviews
(D)opinions
在这一例子中,第二句中的代词they(reflect the opinions…)对应第一句中的they(are not…),而第一个they指代前面从句中的名词主语interviews,那么第二个they也指代interviews,因此(C)为正确答案。


除了上述情况之外,其他指代,如定语从句中(of which…, in which…, from which…)的关系代词指代先行词,from there结构中的there指代前面最接近的地点名词等,限于篇幅,不再详述。

题型篇之三:举例说明概述题

北京新航道学校 李传伟

一、问题形式
举例说明概述题,也叫例证题,被ETS称为“修辞目的题”(rhetorical purpose question),基本形式如下:
The author uses X as an example of…
Why does the author mention X?
The author discusses X in paragraph 2 in order to…


二、解题技巧
举例的目的在于反映概述,所以这类题的一般解题技巧是:绕过例子看概述,对概述进行同义替换的就是正确答案。具体技巧如下:


1.例子说明概述
举例说明概述题经常对应原文的举例for example。做题时可以先根据问题中的关键词确定例子的位置,再阅读例子前的那个句子,这个句子一般就是例子所说明的概述,也就是答案对应的地方。例如,

…sensitivity to physical laws is thus an important consideration for the maker of applied-art objects. It is often taken for granted that this is also true for the maker of fine-art objects. This assumption misses a significant difference between the two disciplines. Fine-art objects are not constrained by the laws of physics in the same way that applied-art objects are. Because their primary purpose is not functional, they are only limited in terms of the materials used to make them. Sculptures must, for example, be stable, which requires an understanding of the properties of mass, weight distribution, and stress. Paintings must have rigid stretchers so that the canvas will be taut, and the paint must not deteriorate, crack, or discolor. These are problems that must be overcome by the artist because they tend to intrude upon his or her conception of the work. For example, in the early Italian Renaissance, bronze statues of horses with a raised foreleg usually had a cannonball under that hoof. This was done because the cannonball was needed to support the weight of the leg…”

Why does the author discuss the bronze statues of horses created by artists in the early Italian Renaissance ?
 To provide an example of a problem related to the laws of physics that a fine artist must overcome
 To argue that fine artists are unconcerned with the laws of physics
 To contrast the relative sophistication of modern artists in solving problems related to the laws of physics
 To note an exceptional piece of art constructed without the aid of technology

根据问题中的关键词bronze statues of horses定位段末,这里有标志词for example,说明它是对前面所说的内容进行例证。前一句These are problems that must be overcome by the artist…就是概述:艺术家必须克服这些问题,因为这些问题破坏他们对艺术作品的构思。这里所说的问题就是上文谈论的物理规律对美术的限制,如必须考虑制作材料的物理特性。而本题对应的原文以例子说明这一点:由于铜的特性,马抬起的前腿下必须有支撑物。综上所述,例子说明它前面的概述,第一个选项符合此意,为正确答案。

又如,
One of the most puzzling aspects of the paintings is their location. Other rock paintings?for example, those of Bushmen in South Africa?are either located near cave entrances or completely in the open. Cave paintings in France and Spain, however, are in recesses and caverns far removed from original cave entrances.

Why does the author mention Bushmen in South Africa in paragraph 2?
To suggest that ancient artists from all over the world painted animals on rocks

To contrast the location of their rock paintings to those found at Lascaux
To support the claim that early artists worked in cramped spaces
To give an example of other artists who painted in hidden locations
与上一题类似,本题的例子Bushmen in South Africa在原文也有标志词for example,
因此这一例子的目的是为了说明它前面的那句话,即这些绘画的位置令人费解。作者以对比的手法来说明这一点:Bushmen in South Africa的绘画常位于洞口或洞外,而法国和西班牙的洞穴绘画(本文所说的绘画)却位于远离最初洞口的深处。由此可见,Bushmen in South Africa的例子是为了说明Lascaux绘画位置的怪异。第二个选项符合此意,为正确答案。

2.例子与概述合二为一

有时例子与概述合二为一,它们分别出现于从句和主句中,或者出现于同一个分句中。例如,

Scholars offer three related but different opinions about the mysterious origin and significance of these paintings. One opinion is that the paintings were a record of seasonal migrations made by herds. Because some paintings were made directly over others, obliterating them, it is probable that a painting’s value ended with the migration it pictured. Unfortunately, this explanation fails to explain the hidden locations, unless the migrations were celebrated with secret ceremonies.

Why does the author mention secret ceremonies?
To present a common opinion held by many scholars
To suggest a similarity between two opinions held by scholars
To suggest a possible explanation for a weakness in an opinion expressed in the passage
To give evidence that contradicts a major opinion expressed in the passage
问题中的关键词secret ceremonies出现于段落末句的从句中:unless the migrations were celebrated with secret ceremonies。在同一句子的主句部分,作者指出:不幸的是,这一解释未能说明为何绘画的位置要隐蔽…,这等于说这一解释不能成立;接着在问题所对应的从句中补充说明上述解释成立所必须满足的条件:除非迁徙的庆祝是秘密进行的。这等于说这一解释缺乏这一条件。第三个选项符合此意,为正确答案。

3.一段中两个相距较远的例子说明该段主题句
问题中涉及同一段中两个例子、而且它们不在一处时,通常它们说明该段主题句。例如,
Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city in three fundamental ways. It catalyzed physical expansion, it sorted out people and land uses, and it accelerated the inherent instability of urban life. By opening vast areas of unoccupied land for residential expansion, the omnibuses, horse railways, commuter trains, and electric trolleys pulled settled regions outward two to four times more distant from city centers than they were in the pre-modern era. In 1850, for example, the borders of Boston lay scarcely two miles from the old business district; by the turn of the century the radius extended ten miles. Now those who could afford it could live far removed from the old city center and still commute there for work, shopping, and entertainment. The new accessibility of land around the periphery of almost every major city sparked an explosion of real estate development and fueled what we now know as urban sprawl. Between 1890 and 1920, for example, some 250,000 new residential lots were recorded within the borders of Chicago, most of them located in outlying areas. Over the same period, another 550,000 were plotted outside the city limits but within the metropolitan area. Anxious to take advantage of the possibilities of commuting, real estate developers added 800,000 potential building sites to the Chicago region in just thirty years ? lots that could have housed five to six million people.

18. Why does the author mention both Boston and Chicago?
(A) To demonstrate positive and negative effects of growth.
(B) To show that mass transit changed many cities.
(C) To exemplify cities with and without mass transportation.
(D) To contrast their rates of growth
问题中的关键词Boston与Chicago(为了便于查找,笔者给它们加了下划线)是两个例子,它们前面分别有提示词for example。由于两个例子位于同一段,而且不在一处,因此只能说明本段主题,也就是首句:Mass transportation revised the social and economic fabric of the American city in three fundamental ways。选项(B)符合此意,为正确答案。

限于篇幅,举例说明概述题的其他情况,如一段中几个相连的例子说明的是第一个例子前的那句话,还有“例子在前,概述在后”等情况,恕不详述。

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《IBT备考导航》之三十八:解决新托福阅读题型的方法

如何解决新TOEFL中的插入句子题 

 在新TOEFL中出现了一种题型是以往老TOEFL中没有考过的一种题型就是插入句子题 给出一句话让我们来判断这句话应加入一个段落四个方块的哪个部分,用鼠标双击所选的黑色方块即可.这种题目本身不难做,因为需要加入的句子有明确的提示,如This is a question that has puzzled scientists for ages.要求将这句话插入一段话中.我们只需要找到关健词question就可以直接去找哪句话可能是作者提出的问题,将这句话加在那句话之后即可.  Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record.  ■how was a gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged?■ Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate or transitional between land mammals and cetaceans. ■ very exciting discoveries have finally allowed scientists to reconstruct the most likely origins of cetaceans. ■ In 1979, a team looking for fossils in  northern Pakistan found what to be  the oldest fossil whale.   你会发现只有how was a gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged?这句话是一个问题,所以应放在这句的后面.正确答案就是: Extinct but already fully marine cetaceans are known from the fossil record.  ■how was a gap between a walking mammal and a swimming whale bridged?  This is a question that has puzzled scientists for ages. Missing until recently were fossils clearly intermediate or transitional between land mammals and cetaceans. ■ very exciting discoveries have finally allowed scientists to reconstruct the most likely origins of cetaceans. ■ In 1979, a team looking for fossils in  northern Pakistan found what to be  the oldest fossil whale.
针对这种题型我们到底要如何解决:
 1、  分析要插入的句子的主干,重点看的是这句话的开头和结尾,因为这句子是承前启后,在这个前提下我们要抓住这句话的核心和主干。
 2、  读四个方块的开头和结尾寻找相关信息,采取关健词同义复现原则
 3、  双击被选中的方块
接下来我来给大家讲解一下如何操作
■ one method of popping corn involved skewering  an ear of corn on a stick and roasting it until the kernel popped off  the ear.(一种爆玉米花的方法是将一穗玉米串在棍子上烘烤真到玉米粒爆开从穗上落下)。■Corn was also popped by the first cutting the kernel off the cob, throwing them into a fire, and gathering them as they popped out of the fire.(玉米也可以通过收玉米时就从玉米棒子上切下来,扔到炉火中,当他们爆开后从炉火中飞出收集在一起)。■ In a final method for popping corn , sand and unpopped kernels of corn were mixed together in a cooking pot and heated until the corn popped to the surface of the sand in the pot(最后一种方法爆玉米花就是把沙子和未爆玉米粒 混在一起放在蒸煮罐加热直到玉米都爆开到沙子的表面.■
 Look at the four squares[■] that indicate where the following sentence can be added to the first paragraph of the passage.
  Native American have been popping corn for at least 5000 years, using a variety of different methods.
 Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage.
 要插入的句子首先要看一下基本的结构,主谓宾带了一个现在分词,现在分词在句尾两种功能  1)伴随动作状态,2)伴随功能结果。而本句话前半部分说了北美印地安人爆玉米花已有5000的历史,分词应该是表示的状态,表达是爆玉米花时使用不同的方法。本句话的关键词是different methods.而从上文我们可以看得出三话讲了三个方法。所以要插入的句子是一个总论。所以应加在第一方块前。
从这个例子,我们可以看出一句话的结尾所表述的含义是多么的重要,刚才我讲解的这个题目只利用句子的结尾关键词复现法,下面给大家举一个开头关键词复现的例子
例2
  ■ This traditional Native American dish was quite a novelty to newcomers to the Americas. (这种土著美州食物对于新到美洲的人来说是全新的。)■ Columbus and his sailors found natives in the West Indies wearing popcorn necklaces, and explorer Hernando Cortes described the use of popcorn amulets in the religious ceremonies of the Aztecs.( 哥伦布和他的船员在西印度群岛发现当地原住民带着苞米花做的项链,而探险家Hernando Cortes 描述了阿芝台克人在宗教仪式上采用苞米花护身符。)  ■According to legendary descriptions of the celebratory meal, Quadequina, the brother of chief Massasoit, contributed several deerskin bags of popcorn to the celebration.(根据传说的对于描述庆典宴会,Quadequina, 是Massasoit酋长的弟弟给庆典带了好几鹿皮口袋的苞米花)
   Look at eh four squares that indicate where the following sentence can  be added to the second paragraph of the passage
     A century after these early explorers, the pilgrims at Plymouth may have been introduced to popcorn at the first Thanksgiving dinner.
 Click on a square  to add the sentence to the passage.
本句子只要看到了  a century after  these early explorers,  these根据代词指代原则 上文一定提过而且不止一个人,所以本句话应该在整段话倒数一句的前面


如何解决新TOEFL阅读中的细节题
  
http://www.neworiental.org/Default.aspx?TabID=4356&InfoID=113599&ctl=InfoDetail&mid=23428

一、问法多采取下列模式
  1.     According to the passage……,……?”
  2.     It is stated in paragraph X
  3.     It is indicated in paragraph X
  4.     It is mentioned in paragraph X
  二、文章如何处理--请记住下列口诀
  通读原文不可取,
  带着问题看原文
  四种句子仔细读
  比较句,强调句
  段首段尾转折句
  重准确,轻速度
  平时做题不猜题
  下次连载我将把这种阅读方法进行系统讲解,本次重点讲细节题
  三、不用通读全文,只要看到细节部分,不要看全文推理  常可回原文定位找到----找相近,找相似
  回原文定位关健词定位法:
  a、题目本身带有大写或斜体
  b、题目本身带有年代或与年代有关
  c、回原文定位要使用纯名词
  d、出题顺序多半和行文顺序相同
  e. 选项本身提示的共同信息,四个选项拥有相同的部分,就本题在问的部分
  四、举例说明
  例如:Crescent-shaped lake Baikal,in Siberia,is only the ninth largest lake in area at 385 miles(620km)in length and 46miles (74km) in width, yet it is easily the largest body of  fresh water in the world.(新月般的贝加尔湖位于西伯利亚,是第九大的湖,长385英里,宽46英里,然而它是世界上最大的淡水湖).It holds one –fifth of the world’s total freshwater, which is more than the total of all the water in five Great lakes;(它拥有世界上五分之一的淡水,比五大湖全部的水还多很多); it holds so much fresh water in spite of its less-than-impressive area because it is by far the world’s deepest lake.(尽管面积不大但淡水很多因为它是世界上迄今为止最深的湖)The average depth of the lake is 1312 feet (400meters)below sea leave and The Olkhon Crevice, the lowest known point ,is more than  5250 feet (1600 meters)deep. (贝加尔湖平均深度是低于海平面1312英尺(400 meters),并且最低点 Olkhon大裂谷 5250英尺(1600米)深.
  Lake Baikal, which today is located near the center of Asian Peninsula, is most likely the world’s oldest lake. (贝加尔湖位于亚洲次大陆中心,可能是世界上最古老的湖).It began forming  25 million years ago as Asia started splitting apart in a series of great faults. (它形成于25亿年前,亚洲板块从一系列断层分离出来(即原始大陆板块中各各板块分离时期)The Baikal Valley dropped away, eventually filling with water and creating the deepest of the world’s lakes.( 贝加尔湖谷下陷裂开,最终填满了水创造了世界上最深的湖)
  1.  what is stated in paragraph 1 about  the shape of lake Baikal?
  A It is wider than it is long  B It is circular in shape  C Iits width is one-half of its length  D It is shaped like a new moon
  从题目本身的问法看是一道细节题
  细节题的解题步骤
  1)  寻找关键词,关键词定位法,本题的关键词是shape
  2)  文章出题顺序和行文顺序是一致的
  本题是第一题按着顺序找第一次出现的地方.
  所以本题正确答案应该是D
  2 It is indicated in paragraph 1 that the area of Lake Baikal
  A is less than the area of eight other lakes  B is one –ninth the area of Siberia  C is greater than the area of any other freshwater lake  D is equal to the area of the five Great lakes
  本题的关键词是  area 面积
  回原文定位: only the ninth largest lake in area at 385 miles(620km)in length and 46miles (74km) in width(第九大的湖,长385英里,宽46英里)所以本题答案为A
  3  According to paragraph 1, lake Baikal __
  A.  holds one –fifth of the world’s water  B.  holds five times the water of the Great lakes   C.  holds one-ninth of the world’s water  D. holds 20 percent of the world’s fresh water
    本题很特别,你会发现题目本身没有任何可以做为关键词的因为全文都在讲这个湖,但没关系看四个选项他们的共同传达信息就是本题要问的信息.你会发现四个选项拥有相同的holds water.所以本题问的是贝加尔湖谷拥有水量,所以本题定位为It holds one –fifth of the world’s total freshwater, which is more than the total of all the water in five Great lakes;( 它拥有世界上五分之一的淡水,比五大湖全部的水还多很多)所以正确答案是D。丽丽英语每期都会做连载,敬请关注。
  4   According to paragraph 1, the olkhon crevice is ____
  A  outside of Lake Baikal  B  400 meters below sea level  C  the deepest part of Lake Baikal  D  5000 meters deep
  本题定位关键词为olkhon crevice所以定位于原文:The Olkhon Crevice, the lowest known point ,is more than  5250 feet (1600 meters)deep  最低点 Olkhon大裂谷 5250英尺(1600米)深.  正确答案为 C.
  5  It is mentioned in paragraph 2 that Lake Baikal__
  A is not as old as some other lakes   B formed when sections of the Earth were moving away from each other.  C was fully formed 25 million years ago  D is today located on the edge of the Asia peninsula
  本题是本文的最后一个题目而且写明了是paragraph 2,所以正确答案为B定位于原文.It began forming  25 million years ago as Asia started splitting apart in a series of great faults
  如有任何问题可以到丽丽英语专栏留言给我也可以到丽丽的博客:http://blog.koolearn.com/page/xdf_zhaoli 和我交流,篇幅所限不能一一列举,希望广大学员平时多练习,没有实践就没有发言权


如何解决新TOEFL阅读中的总结题

http://www.neworiental.org/Default.aspx?TabID=485&InfoID=116269&ctl=InfoDetail&mid=2470

总结题主要目的:
    考查学生理解和识别主要内容和文中所提及重要的信息。
这类考题的特点:
    有六个选项,你可以从中选出三个最能表达主要思想的句子。这类考题分值是2分,选出三个得2分,选出2 个得1分,顺序选择不影响得分。
Direction:
An introductory  sentence or  a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the three answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentences do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage. This question is worth 2 points
解决这类考题的方法:
 一、清楚文章的论证类型
 总分型一般容易出这类考题。我以中文为例,丽丽老师是一个非常好的人。首先,她很乐于助人例如一次我看见她扶一个盲人过马路,其次丽丽老师很慷慨,有一次我看见她为希望工程捐了她当时兜里的全部钱(50元),第三丽丽很谦虚和平易近人。
这样的文章特别容易出总结题
 Lily   is  a  nice  person
 ◆  1
 ◆  3
 ◆  5
 1、  丽丽乐于助人
 2、  丽丽扶一个盲人过马路
 3、  丽丽老师很慷慨,
 4、  老余捐了100元
 5、  丽丽很谦虚和平易近人
 6、  丽丽经常打架
正确答案应该是 1、3、5
 二、解决方法:
一)主体词排除错误选项法
 首先抓住要总结的关键词也就是主体词,就是要问哪方向的内容,如上个例子,主体题丽丽一定会在正确答案中出现,不然问的是丽丽可以答案谈论的是别人,就变得完全不相关了,根据这个特点我们可以排除 4老余捐了100元
如OG上的一道总结题可以直接使用主体词排除错误选项的方法
 The technology of modern cinema evolved at the end of the nineteenth century.
 ◆  3
 ◆  5
 ◆  6
 1、  Kinetoscope parlors or viewing films were modeled on phonograph parlors
 2、  Thomas Edison’s design of the  Kinetoscope inspired the development of large screen projection.
 3、  Early cinema allowed individuals to use special machines to view films privately.
 4、  Slides-and-lantern shows had been presented.
 5、  The development of projection technology made it possible to project images on a large screen
 6、  once films images could be projected,  the cinema became a form of mass consumption
其中只有三个选项有本问题的关键词,本问题的关键词是 the technology of cinema.
 二)细节信息排除法
总结题是对对文章的高度概括所以细节的出现犯了以偏概全的错误,如中文例子中的2、丽丽扶一个盲人过马路。 这是一个具体的事实细节,我们要绕过例子看总结。所以在排除它。
如OG中的一道题目
This passage discusses fossils that help to explain the likely origins of cetaceans-whales, porpoises and dolphins
 ◆  1
 ◆ 2
◆  5
Answer choices
1 Recent discoveries of fossils have helped to show he link between land mammals and cetaceans(这是本文的主题)
2、The discovery of Ambulocetus natans provided evidence for a whale that lived both on land and at sea.(总结性信息)
3、The skeleton of Basilosaurus are found in what had been the Tehys Sea, an area rich in fossil evidence. (绝对的事实细节)-排除
4 Pakicetus is the oldest fossil whale yet to be found((绝对的事实细节)-排除
5、Fossils thought to be transitional forms between walking mammals and swimming whales were found..(主题)
6、Ambulocetus’hind legs were used for propulsion in the water. ((绝对的事实细节)-排除
三)新信息出现排除
如6、丽丽经常打架,原文没有出现,所以正确答案中一定没有。
      由于篇幅所限,我们下期在继续谈总结题如何做,以及总结题的几大类型和不同类型的解法,本期讲的只是总结的题通用方式,总结题题型不同,做题方法也不同,如有任何问题,www.teacherzhaoli.com留言给我。

如何解决新TOEFL阅读中的修饰目的题

http://www.neworiental.org/Default.aspx?TabID=1130&InfoID=115457&SettingModuleID=23428

 问法一般是:why does the author mention X?  in order to ….细节题的提问方式多半是:what而这种题目多半是问why。
新TOEFL阅读这种题目不是每篇文章都考的分为如下几类
 一、例子题,一般占出题机会的70%,why does the author mention X?  X 本身是段落中出现的一个例子,这类题目是送分题,因为要么是先举例后总结,要么是先概述后举例,所以答案多半是绕过例子看概述,而概述的改写是就本题的答案所在。
 举个中文例子:丽丽老师是个好人。有一次,我见到丽丽帮助盲人过马路。作者提到了丽丽扶盲人过马路 in order to?为了说明丽丽老师是个好人。
如:Male swans will engage in ferocious contests, with their necks entwined as they attempt to cause mortal injure to each other.
The author mentions their necks entwined in paragraph 2 in order to ___
 A.      to indicate that swans are really rather affectionate
 B.      to emphasize how long swans’ necks are
 C.      to make the point that the swans are only pretending to hurt one another
 D.     to create a mental image for the reader of fighting swans.
从本题来看,总结在前例子在后,本题作者相表达的是:ferocious contest 进一步描画。
A表明天鹅很恩爱。无  B强调天鹅脖子长。 无 C.强调天鹅仅仅想假装伤害对方。无同时加了绝对意义的词成为错误选项的标志。所以正确答案为  D
注意:
1)、如果原文有多个例子都是为同一主题服务的,则总结在第一例子出现处。
At the same time, the death rate, too, was falling. Urban living led to better sanitation, refrigeration, and water purification; it also resulted in better medical care as doctors and hospitals were more readily available. Most likely as a result of these factors, there were only  eleven deaths per thousand annually by  the early 1920s, which was half the rate of 1880s.
why does  the author mention better medical care in paragraph 3?
 A.      It helps to explain why the birthrate is increasing
 B.      It is an example of  a factor that contributed to the improved birthrate
 C.      It helps to explain why the death rate is increasing
 D.     It is an example of a factor that contributed to the improved death rate.
从上边那段话,我们发现medical care只是分号后的一个内容,而分号是带有并列功能的句号,说明前部分也是同一方面的内容。根据例子之前的概述和例子之后的总结所以正确答案应该是D。
2)插入式举例
 如见到下列词:for example  for instance  such as like especially  particularly specially in particular 都属于插入式举例,这样服务对象多半在前面。
二、下定义式的考题
A, B    A---B---C    A or B  A  which B 等形式
丽丽老师,一个共产主义战士
此类题目定义的改写就是正确答案
例1 In many species, members of the species exhibit aggressive behavior toward one another, often with a focus on territoriality, the fight for exclusive control of a particular area.(在很多物种中,一个物种中成员对另一个产生攻击性行为焦点在地盘性,就是动物在防卫其领土时的打斗行为)
 Why does the author include the fight for exclusive control of particular area in paragraph 1?
 A.      It presents an argument  against a  previously stated point
 B.      It provides a definition of a previously stated term.
 C.      It presents a second area of focus of aggressive behavior.
 D.     It introduces a new idea to be further developed in the paragraph.
本题很明显就是 territoriality,  the fight for exclusive control of a particular area.是一个下定义的标准模式,正确答案: B
例2 Most bird species are known to be territorial to some degree, though the territorial behaviors exhibited by most species are limited to singing contests, which can  go on for days  or threatening postures with wing lifted or extended.
Why does the author mention singing contests in paragraph 2?
 A.      to demonstrate that birds create beautiful sounds
 B.      to provide  an example of unusual behavior  by birds
 C.      to show how violently aggressive some bird behavior is
 D.     to demonstrate that some types of territorial behavior are not very aggressive.
singing contests, which can  go on for days  or threatening postures with wing lifted or extended.  从后面的定语从句可以看出是下定义考点,所以根据定语从句内容可以看得出是正确答案是D
三、逻辑关系词的题
在段落中将某个逻辑关系词划线问why does the author mention “逻辑关系词”?
这种题目的解法关注逻辑关系词所表述的含义如:
转折连词:however but although instead rather than 等词的出现就是表明前后相反含义
因果连词:because result in result from等词的出现就是表明前后因果关系
递进连词:furthermore  too  also  等
举个中文例子:丽丽老师很靓,但事实上,她长得很抽象。Why does the author mention但事实上?是因为前后逻辑关系相反。
例1:
 The level of violence in territorial aggression varies widely from species to species, though few species fight other members of the species to death and instead rely on non-lethal contests for control of territory that involves noise-making maneuvers such as roaring.(在领土争夺过程中的暴力水平是物种之间是有区别的,尽管很少有物种把对方打死而是代替的是依赖于非致命性的方式来控制领地包括发出噪音如吼叫)
Why does the author use the word instead in paragraph 2 to show that information that follows
A contradicts what precedes it
B expands upon what precedes it
C provides an example of what precedes it
D explains an effect of what precedes it
Instead显然是一个逻辑关系词表明前后相反含义所以正确答案应该是A
 例2          Unfortunately, Hubble telescope was initially delayed in  relaying its first pictures back from space due to a simple mathematical miscalculation.
Why does the author begin paragraph 2 with Unfortunately?
 A.      it indicates that NASA has been unhappy with all of Hubble’s photograph.
 B.      It shows that NASA’s plan to use stars to orient the Hubble telescope was misguided
 C.      It emphasizes the need to have telescopes on Earth.
 D.     It indicates that high expectation were not initially met.
Unfortunately,表明了作者对Hubble 望远镜的态度。所在正确答案是D。

如何解决新TOEFL阅读中的词汇:如何做词汇题



上期讲过新TOEFL阅读的词汇基础如何解决,这期我专门谈一下词汇题到底如何来做的问题。我们尽量在考试前背好单词,但依然可能存在这样的问题:我们在考试现场考的词汇不认识,在这种情况下我们如何解决呢?其实很好解决,因为文章上下文是有关系的,我们可以利用上下文的关系来直接去判定,这样我们就可以在不认识的情况下把题目做出来了或者认识这个词但考的是一个生辟的含义情况下把含义猜出来。首先我们要认出词汇题,这个相信不难大家都会判断,TOEFL的词汇题考是都是近义词,题目常见的问法如下:the word(or phrase) X is closest in meaning to ……,the word(or phrase) x could be best replaced by        看清题型后寻求解决方法--阅读上下文,找到关系常考的关系如下:        1) 直接反义—该词前或后出现的内容提示我们是反义关系。从中文看逻辑会看的更清楚,我们先举个中文的例子:丽丽是个---人,相反她是一个内向的人。从后面的内向可以推出前面应该是个外向之类的词。所以我们要关注的是 rather than  instead  unlike contrast  on the contrary.        For example: The main conflict in the novel is between a mother who places a high value on hard work and honor and  a son who repudiates his mother’s values instead preferring the easier path to fortune and celebrity      问题: the word repudiates in the passage in closest in meaning to __      A) refuses to accept       B) lives up to     C) tries to understand      D) makes the best of        假如repudiates我们不认识,当然一定会有同学说不用假如,我就是不认识。不认识刚好,我们可以从后面的小词 instead 这个词判定儿子和妈妈的价值观念是相反的,由此信息看四个选项,你会发现只有A选项带有否定的意味        2) 利用并列关系去判定:        并列关系词如下:and   not only ..but also  as…as  and  both … and either… or neither… nor        我们先举个中文例子看看:        丽丽和俞敏洪老师跳舞就好比美女与__跳舞。答案一定是正面的而不象少数同学内心比较阴暗认为答案是野兽.正确答案是帅哥.        For example:She embarked on her career by working as a newspaper reporter in Wisconsin and soon began writing novels.       问题: The phrase embarked on in this sentence is closest in meaning to        A) took a trip to      B) started out on      C) improved upon     D) had a opinion about        我们可以从前后关系判定,首先我们看到一个词career职业生涯—care(关心)+er(人)—关心这件事情的人,从事这个职业. 我们在这句中看到关健词 and 其后出现soon began告诉我们前后方向是一致的,前面也必然和began有关,所以本题目的正解是B。        3)解释关系:后面的句子或短词,单词来解释前面的词常见的标志词:contribute to  be responsible for  account for   since  therefore   for   because  in which        举个中文例子:丽丽老师昨天扶一下盲人过马路,所以丽丽是一个___人,答案一定是个正态度,是一个乐于助人的人,不会是选一个损人不利已的人因为人家盲人不想过马路,被丽丽老师给硬拉过去了。这种情况是特例,TOEFL中考的都是正常情况。        For example:His big break came with the novel So big(1924) ,which was awarded the Pulitzer in literature.        问题: the word break in this sentence could best be replaced by ___        A) rupture  B) revelation  C) opportunity  D) rest       which was awarded the Pulitzer in Literature告诉我们一定考查的是正态度,所以答案不可能是A) D),所以应该选 C) Opportunity  是一种有利的状态或合适的时机。        4)动宾关系判定:看看宾语能否受动词去配,或从动词短语搭配去判定        举个中文例子:比如有一个坏人准备选了一个月圆之夜,主楼之巅,自由落体,绝迹人间,走到楼顶,——下去。A)杀 B)侃 C)跳 D)跑。能和下去搭配的词只有两个一个C)跳 D)跑,从前面的提示可以看出,不可能在楼顶跑下去,除非不跳了,但必须是跑回去。        For example: The oxidation of exhaust gases is one of primary sources of the world’s pollutions. The brown haze that is poised over some of the world’s largest cities is properly called photochemical smog.          The word poised in this sentence is closest in meaning to__        A) interacting       B) sitting       C) blowing     D) poisoning        首先从搭配关系上可以排除 interacting ,interact with 然后可以从上下文关系排除 blowing over 因为吹走了就是不会有smog.而poison考试中及物才有pollute的含义,不及物只有一种含义表示投毒。   5)形容词修饰名词关系判定—不是每个形容词都可以修饰所有的名词。例如打饭的队伍不说很粗而要说很长,尽管事实上很多人不排队造成了很粗的感觉。        For example:when the gas reaches the air, it comes into contact with available oxygen from atmosphere and combines with the oxygen to produce nitrogen dioxide (No2),which is a gas with a brownish hue.        The word hue in this sentence is closest in meaning to         A)color    B)odor      C)thickness    D)smoke        对于本题你会发现有个小词brownish 呈褐色的,首先从形容词修饰名词关系可以直接排除B odor  C thickness, 其次可以通过 a gas with brownish hue前面的 gas 排除 D smoke,用词重复。所以正确答案是A。


简化句子题    which of the following best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence? incorrect answer choices change the meaning in important ways leave out essential information.    原文本身通过加黑一个句子进行highlight,让你对这句话进行简化.下面四个选项哪个是简化以后的句子.解这种题的主要方法是:仔细阅读highlighted 的句子,找出谈论的主体词,把握两个原则:1)逻辑关系不变原则2)文章谈论主体词不变原则.

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太牛了!

感谢+感动!

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many many thanks!

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