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[分享]TOEFL iBT备考导航汇总 平安夜更新刷考位技巧

《IBT备考导航》之十一 :IBT口语笔记和模板
IBT口语笔记(Amanda老师)


Task one: Independent Task, personal preference
Preparation time: 15s    Response time: 45s
tips 1) start reading the question as soon as they come up
      2) read the question carefully, and answer it exactly
      3)organize your response very clearly
      4)do not try to present a lot of points at one time
      5)use signal words
      6)stick to vocabulary, sentence, structure
      7)speak slowly and distinctly
      8)monitor the time carefully
Step 1)decide which specific topic you are going to say
Step 2)during the preparation time, thick about a couple of sub points. You              even can put down the key word.
Step 3) a) start with a topic statement. You can even repeat part of the question
       b) present only a couple of sub point with supporting details and examples
         c)use the signal words to show how the ideas are related.
         d) Pay attention to the time

Task two: Independent Tasks, paired choice

Preparation time: 15s    Response time: 45s

-make and defend a choice between two contrasting behaviors or courses

Task three: Read/Listen/Speak, Campus situation topic, fit and explain (summarize)

Preparation time: 30s    Response time: 60s

-Consists of two source and a single question

-A reading passage (75-100 words) presents a campus-related issue

-A listening passage (60-80 seconds, 150-180 words) comments on the issue in the reading

-The question asks the test taker to summarize the speaker’s opinion within the context of the reading passage

-The question is always about the opinion of one (not two!) person in the conversation and why he or she holds the opinion.

-Do not listen to the direction, and use the time (15s) to read the reading passage

-Organize your response very clearly

-Use transition to make your response clearly

Note-taking strategy: Note format

Female                   Male

****                     ****

*****                    **

***                      ***

Task four: Read/Listen/Speak, Academic Course Topic; General/Specific Task

Preparation time: 30s    Response time: 60s

-A reading passage (75-100 words, 45deconds) gives background information about an academic topic

-An excerpt from a lecture (60-90 seconds, 150-220 words) deals with a more specific aspect of the topic

-Combine and convey important information from the reading and the lecture

-Example in listening should be repeated in speaking

-Do not listen to the direction, and use the time (15s) to read the reading passage

-Organize your response very clearly

-Use transition to make your response clearly

Step 1) reading

a)      When listening to the direction, pay attention to the first part of it, which usually tells you the main topic of the reading passage and the following conversation. Then start reading immediately

b)      Take notes on the topic and the main points

Step 2) listening

a)      Take notes!!!

b)      Focus on the content, not the delivery

c)      Anticipate what you will hear

d)      Stay active by asking mental questions

Note-taking strategy: Note format

Major Point

Supporting detail

Supporting detail

         Subsidiary detail

         Subsidiary detail

Major Point

Supporting detail

         Subsidiary detail

         Subsidiary detail

Supporting detail

Supporting detail

Subsidiary detail

          Subsidiary detail

              More detail

              More detail

Task five: Listen/Speak: Campus situation topic; Problem/Solution

Preparation time: 20s    Response time: 60s

-One listening passage (60-90s, 120-180 words) about a student-related problem and two possible solutions. A conversation.

-Understanding of the problem and express an opinion about the solving problem.

Note-taking strategy: Note format

Female                   Male

****                     ****

*****                    **

***                      ***

-Response like this

    a. The problem   b. Solutions    c. My choice    d. My reason

Task six: Listen/Speak: Academic Course Topic; Summary

Preparation time: 20s    Response time: 60s

-The direction usually tells you what the topic of the upcoming lecture will be or at least in which field the lecture will be.

-2 minutes lecture

Sample listening notes:

  Two technological innovations

        Automobiles:

                Mass produced in 1920s

                Attitude and create links

        Radio:

                Listen to the same program

                Shared experience

Tips for Task 5 & 6

1)      Listen to the direction carefully

2)      Do not worry if the material is not familiar to you

3)      Listen carefully to the passage

4)      Take notes

5)      Organize your response very clearly

6)      Use transition to make your response cohesive

7)      Stick to the vocabulary

8)      Speak slowly and distinctly

Template

Task three

   I think the woman/man (supports, is in support of, is happy with, is against, is unhappy with, feels sorry for) + part of the question. She/He expresses two reasons for holding this opinion. Firstly,…….Second of all,……….

Task four (reading is very important!)

   The ( topic in the reading passage) is …… (Topic in the reading passage) refers to ……The professor describes two examples to demonstrate……

Task five

   I think the man’s/ the woman’s problem is……The man/ woman/ professor in the conversation provides him/ her with two solutions, one is… and the other is……In my opinion/As far as I concerned/ Personally I think the first/the second solution is better. The reason is……

Task six

   Explain terminology/ concept (what is it?)

   (Move on to the two details/examples)

   First of all………..

   Second of all…….

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《IBT备考导航》之十二:IBT作文笔记

2 tasks,  50 minutes   You must use the keyboard!!!!

Integrated task

1)   Reading  3 min

Listening  2 min

Writing    20 min   180-225 words

2)   这个作文题是问readinglistening之间的关系.有出互相支持,互相驳斥,时间延续,例子与概括等可能的关系,实际考试中只考互相驳斥这一种.

3)   阅读是总分()结构

  a. defined     no rebuke (定义不会被驳斥)

    b. not defined     rebuke   (观点,非定义会被驳斥)

   example       rebuke    (每个例子都会被驳斥)

4)最高级,比较级   rebuke

5)程度副词  very, extremely, highly, undoubtly, absolutely, exactly       rebuke

6)positive/negative           rebuke

7)因果关系                 rebuke

8)绝对化不定代词           rebuke

9)Response:  no 1st salutation, no self idea, compare/contrast, cliché, summary

第一段

1)      与文章中观点相反

As opposed to the ideas of the reading

In contrast to

Running counter to

Contrary to

Rather deviating from

2)      作者/说话者认为

think, hold, maintain, take the position that, believe

3)      说话者讨论,探究,研究

discuss, elaborate, address

4)      一些问题

problem, issue

5)      驳斥

rebuke, refute, question, argue, reject, refuse

6)      难以接受,缺少证据

groundless, unwarranted, incorrect, improper, inappropriate

7)      在这个方面

in this area (of), in this aspect (of), in this field (of)

8)      关于

regarding, with regard to, with respect to

9)      产生疑问

cast doubts over, raise concerns over, put forward his/her reservation that

10)   因为

in that, given that

11)   所以

therefore, as a result

12)   然而(speaking中不是这样)

however, unfortunately, on the contrary, conversely

13)   情况不一样

it is not the case in the lecture, such a situation is presented rather differently in the lecture

14)   不同意

disagree, oppose, object to, be against

15)   最后总结一下

in retrospect, in a final analysis

第二段

1)      raise the idea of the reading

2)      transition

3)      the correct idea of the speaker

 

     第三段,是第二段的另一种模式

1)      the idea of the speaker

2)      transition

3)      the incorrect idea in the reading passage

4)      support the speaker

    第四段,是第二、三段的另一种模式

1)  又共同讨论了什么

2)  reading listening 分别是什么观点

3)  它们是不同的

Topic statement

   In this set of materials, the reading passage…….and the listening passage….

Supporting paragraph 1

   The reading passage discusses……., which is ………One point that is made…….is that …….

Supporting paragraph 2

   The listening passage provides……There were many details…..For instance

Supporting paragraph 3

……………………………………………………………………………….

Independent task

同旧托福TWE  30 minutes, more than 300 words.

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我的IBT考试全过程--《IBT备考导航》之十三

我的IBT考试全过程

8月份大陆地区的ibt也要开始了,很多同学对于考试的形式,步骤,时间的分配不是很清楚,就把我个人的考试经历跟大家分享一下。我是在加拿大考的,考试过程的细节部分可能跟国内有区别,但应该不会很大。希望可以给大家一个具体的形象化的概念。

overview:考试顺序:阅读,听力,口语,写作。IBT会多出一个测试部分,就是会多考一部分听力或阅读,但是不算分。我们并不知道哪一部分是测试的,所以只能全部尽力。

考试时间是早上8点,到达考场的时候睡眼惺忪,发现已经有很多同学在那里排队了,有位工作人员在那里叫号,我就过去问MM是什么号码,她说来了的同学按先后顺序在她那里排个号,注意,这个号码跟准考证什么的完全无关,就是按到达的先后顺序。然后,在外面等,这个时间可以上个厕所,喝点水,或做做深呼吸,平静一下。当时的感觉是等了很久才叫到我(我排20多号)。

被叫到号之后,进入考场外的登记部分,工作人员会检查我们的证件,然后给一份材料让我们阅读和签字,内容大致是说我同意不懈露考题,我就是考生本人,不是替考的之类,抄写一段话,签名。类似于纸币考试中的那个。

然后工作人员会问你需不需要一个箱子锁你的随身物品,如果需要,就要一把钥匙,然后锁好物品,有人带你进场。

进场后先扫描一个你的照片,这个是会显示在成绩单上的。(尽量照的漂亮些,保持笑容,我就是由于早上没睡醒,照片很恐怖……)

扫描完毕会有工作人员代你去一个机位,个人感觉,先到的同学比较幸福,可以选比较安静的座位,最后剩下的座位都是靠门边或过道的。由于考试过程中的休息时间总会有同学进出,坐的位置不好会多少受些影响。

然后,工作人员给你六张草稿纸和三支铅笔,用来作笔记的。注意,草稿纸是钉在一起的。不要拆开。

正式开始考试:

先把耳麦带好,把座椅鼠标键盘都调整到舒服的位置。计算机屏幕上会有一个对话框试的东西,点击确定开始考试。你点击确定的时间就是考试开始的具体时间。注意,每个人考试开始的具体时间都是不同的,先到的先开始考。

先是一段提示,让你调整耳机和麦克的音量。这个在考试过程中也是可以调整的,不过先调整好比较方便。麦克音量调整方法:电脑会让你说一些东西,你所说的内容并不重要,主要是要持续的说下去,用你平时的音量就好。电脑会根据你的声音自动调整麦克音量。

考试开始的第一部分是阅读,正常是三篇文章,如果多一个测试部分的话就是5篇文章。第一个section, 一篇文章,20分钟,10道题。(点击开始,计时器就开始计时,10分钟结束后自动推出界面,或者,如果你完成的比较早,也可以在时间还没结束的时候点击提交,但是剩余时间就浪费掉了。不会累积到下一步分。)第二个section, 两篇文章,40分钟,20道题。如果多一个测试部分的话,第三个section,两篇文章,40分钟,20道题。

接下来是听力部分,第一个section, 三个段子,内容分别是student & student, student & staff, student & professor,内容还是关于校园生活的或是科技文章。跟纸币考试相比,去掉了短对话部分,长对话的长度比以前的长,但是允许作笔记,帮助我们记忆。科技文章也不是单纯的教授一个人说,也穿插学生于教授的问答。

第二个section, 与第一个相同。注意每道题的间隔时间不顾定,6个段子总共有20分钟的答题时间,完全由你自己掌握。在回答完第一题之后,点击进入第二题,你所用的答题时间会累积,屏幕上也会显示你的总共剩余时间。比以前宽余了很多。

正常的听力是两个section, 6个段子,如果你多的那个测试部分是听力的话,就会有3个section, 9个段子。注意,每个人测试部分只可能有一个,不是听力就是阅读。

听力结束之后,有10分钟休息。

接下来是口语。第一个section, independent speaking,就是给你一个题目让你自由发挥。题目显示在屏幕上。准备时间15秒,回答时间45秒。

第二个section,屏幕上先给出一小段文字,在规定的时间内读完,记不清了,大概是一分钟。然后会有一段听力。然后回答题目。一般是问你两段内容的相同点或不同点。准备时间30秒,回答时间60秒。

第三个scetion, 听一个长段子,然后回答题目。准备时间30秒,回答时间60秒。

最后是作文部分,第一篇,类似于听力的第二个section, 也是先阅读,在听一段东西,然后回答题目。注意,阅读部分的东西在你写作的时候也是看得到的。时间20分钟,要求150-225字(大概)。

第二篇,independent writing,形式和纸币考试的写作相同,出题方式也基本没变化。30分钟。写作部分要注意,平时练习的时候就在电脑上练习打字速度,这对考试的影响很大。

最后,大功告成,可以轻松的走了。整个考试比纸币考试时间长了很多。大概有四个小时!!

这是我的亲身经历,大家分享,说的不准确和不正确的地方,同学们指正,共同进步嘛!!!!

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IBT 分数计算from Delta (reading and listioning )----《IBT备考导航》之十四

Reading part

points earned      section score

            42          30
            41          30
            40          29
            39          28
            38          27
            37          27
            36          26
            35          25
            34          24
            33          24
            32          23
            31          22
            30          21
            29          20
            28          20
            27          19
            26          18
            25          18    

       
24          17

    
23          16
            22          15
            21          14
            20          13
            19          13
            18          12
            17          10
            16          10
            15          09
            14          07
            13          06
            12          05
            11          04
            10          03
            09          02
            08          01
Listening Part

points earned         section score

      34                    30

      33                    29

      32                    27

      31                    26

      30                    25

      29                    23

      28                    22

      27                    21

      26                    19

      25                    18

      24                    17

      23                    15

      22                    14

      21                    14

      20                    12

      19                    11

      18                    10

      17                    09

      16                    08

      15                    08

      14                    07

      06                    01

仅供参考

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新托福(iBT-TOEFL)口语突破--《IBT备考导航》之十五

很多人说新托福(iBT-TOEFL)是革命性的变革,仿佛从四轮马车时代一下子飞跃到高科技信息时代,是针对中国人的弱点故意找茬的变态考试,我不这么看。我觉得新托福考试是个契机,督促我们全面地提高英文实力,尤其是从根本上提高口语水平。以前,即便是考过600分,并不意味着能真正驾驭语言,懵懵懂懂地走进大学,走上工作岗位,其实日子很难受:上课一言不发,在公司听同事眉飞色舞谈天说地却不知所云,更插不上嘴。过不了语言关,生活缺少了很多乐趣。有时连个性都变了,明明是一个活蹦乱跳健谈幽默的人,由于英文说不来,变成了内向的闷葫芦。美国文化中有一句经典的话:“Everything Is About Attitude - 事情的成与败由你的态度决定。”想要攻破新托福口语这道难关,必须先端正态度 - Think positively,即乐观面对。因为这种挑战不是不可战胜的,也是迟早需要面对的,而且越早面对越好- the sooner, the better.

难在哪里?

新托福口语难在哪里?难在它的综合性上,因为它考察的不是闲聊和普通的交际,而是集读听说为一体的具有高度逻辑性和严格时间限制的学术交流能力。简单地说,就是考察学生能否在北美大学课堂上熟练地听和说。与雅思、密歇根英语水平考试等不同的是,新托福口语所侧重的不是单一的能力,不考察问路看地图那种Survival English (生存英语),而是能否在规定时间内复述教授的讲课内容,参加课堂辩论,有条理地进行学术对话。即便是native speaker,也不一定能准确流利、有条理地复述出一段关于动物驯养的段子。即便让你在60秒内用中文复述这段话,也不一定能打满分,因为发音、结构、内容、词汇和衔接方式未必能做到完美无缺。因此,新托福口语所考察的不仅是语言能力,而且是逻辑思维和论证能力,高分考生必须是那种出口成章的人。

ETS对新托福口语的评分标准紧紧围绕两个字:Clearly and Coherently (清楚和具有连贯性)。这两个词看似简单,实际学问大了。拿Clearly来讲,一个人说话清楚,包括发音清晰,口齿清晰,结构清晰,语法正确;具有连贯性表示前言搭后语,有主题有内容有衔接。

一至二题
  

新托福口语分为六道题。前两题要求考生在45秒内就一熟悉话题发表自己的看法。其中第一题是Describe某种东西,比如Describe an important class you have taken at school, and explain why this class is important to you. 讲述在学校所学课程中哪一门可对你最重要,为什么最重要。第二题是A or B, which one do you prefer? 比如对于大学一年级学生来说,住学生宿舍好还是自己在校外租房好。

这两道题的准备时间分别是15秒。从某种意义上讲,这两题具有一定难度,因为它需要你Create(创作)一段话,从内容到结构到词汇,要求考生快速反应,快速组织,快速应答。此两题的关键在于好好准备,由于真题重复率非常高,考生一定要事先准备好20来个段子,以便在考场上举一反三,从容面对。如果事先不做准备,完全依赖临场发挥,除非英语实力非常强,否则就等于去送死。在高度紧张的状态下,想要同时搞定语法、句子结构、用词、发音和内容,根本不可能。

这两段没有标准答案,内容因人而异,也是考生唯一可以煽情的机会。准备这两题的基本策略是“My Three Words”,就是拿到一个题,立即想出三个不同的形容词或词组,作为你的三个理由,然后举至少一个例子稍稍展开一下,基本上就闯关了。至少要准备100个常用的闪光形容词,装在脑子里,随时备用。别忘了,考试内容高度重复,理由例子可以串用,只要准备好,这两道题不应该考得太差。

三至六题
 


三至六题以听力为本,考生先听后说,从某种意义上讲,只要听力没有问题,这四道题其实并不难,因为考的是复述内容,在听的过程中,只要能紧紧抓住其中的关键词和词组(key words and phrases, 比如动物驯化一段中的Territorial, follow leader, hierarchy, fight),记些笔记,然后在20-30秒的准备时间里将笔记整理编号,在60秒内基本就是“读”出答案就行了。当然,如果听力功底薄弱就悬了。

第三题和第五题比较相似,是复述一段关于校园生活的对话。第三题以一段45秒的阅读开始,讲述一个与校园生活相关的通知或说明,然后听一男一女就此话题展开的评论,其中一方反对,一方赞同。考生的任务是复述其中一方的立场,并说明理由。第五题没有阅读,以一段对话开始,其中一方表明自己的困难和困惑,另一方为其出谋划策。考生的任务是复述一方的问题和另一方的建议,并表明你认为哪种方法更好。此题的关键是一定要留出至少20秒的时间表明自己的态度,否则属于答题不完整,会严重丢分。

攻破第三题和第五题,一定要熟练掌握学习场景的各种词汇,比如选课、图书馆、作业、论文、宿舍等等。考试的内容无非是发生在同学和同学之间以及同学和老师之间的对话,与现实生活中发生的情况完全相符,非常实用。考生对北美的大学生活越熟悉,做题就更得心应手。

第四题和第六题是学术段子,也是新托福口语部分的要害,考察的是学生是否能掌握课堂教学的实际内容并进行学术交流。从2005年9月以来的新托福真题看,此两题常考的题材是Animal Behavior (动物行为)、商业、心理学、历史和环境保护。

第四题以一段45秒的阅读开头,这段阅读讲的是一个General Idea,即某个事物的普遍特点,比如Animal Domestication (动物的驯养—)总体上所必备的特点。考生的任务是抓阅读中的要素和特征,比如适合被驯化的动物有两个特点:1.对领地不敏感 (non-territorial) 2. 有严格的社会等级制度 (hierarchical social structure)。紧接着,在1-2分钟的听力段子中讲述某些特殊例子是否具备阅读中的普遍特征和要素,比如马和羚羊分别具有什么样的特点。准备时间为30秒,之后用60秒的时间复述马和羚羊是否适合被驯养。

第六题没有阅读,以2分钟的听力段子为基础,讲述某一事物的几个特点,几个步骤,几个特征。准备时间为20秒,然后用60秒的时间复述。比如汽车和收音机对形成美国全国性统一文化起了至关重要的作用,然后分别详述汽车和收音机作了那些贡献。

值得注意的是,三至六题有标准答案可循,其标准答案就是听力中的key words and key phrases. 考生需要做的是从听力中pick up these words and phrases, 然后将其准确无误地复述出来,不需要添油加醋,不需要煽情。

对大多数中国考生来讲,三至六题是心头之痛,因为首先听不懂,其次记不下来,即使记下来,记的东西都不是有用的key phrases. 有些同学听就不能记,记就不能听,好像一动手写字,耳朵就关闭了似的。其实这正是英文实力所在,也是考生必须逾越的鸿沟,最终的目标是听懂听清,边听边记,然后清清楚楚地说出来。

如果想顺利在新托福口语这条路上过关斩将,必须完成以下八步:
  

1 Make sure you clearly UNDERSTAND the listening materials 听懂
If not, you will have to work really hard on LISTENING, because this is the FOUNDATION of the whole test, try “READ AFTER THE RECORDING,” SENTENCE BY SENTENCE, WORD BY WORD – 如果听不懂,必须恶补听力,因为听力是整个口语考试的根本。逐字逐句地练习跟读和跟说,让耳朵和嘴巴同步前进

2 Make sure you take some NOTES while you are listening 边听边记
如果做不到,必须练习听抄和听写

3 Make sure your notes contain useful KEY PHRASES, main verbs and adjectives 笔记中有关键词、主要动词和形容词
If not, go back to step 2 如果做不到,回到第二步

4 Make sure you can put your notes together by adding transitional words, subjects, and conclusion 快速整理笔记,添加衔接词、主语和结论句
This part requires some WRITING skills, try to write down transitional words until you can add them automatically while speaking, i.e. so that, as for, on the other hand, therefore.. 此步骤要求运用一定的写作技巧,现人为添加转折词,直到能在说的过程中自动添加

5 Make sure you can READ the passage clearly and coherently 清楚有条理地朗读
If not, you will have to practice each passage at least 10 TIMES 如果做不到,练习10遍

6 Make sure you can SAY it clearly and coherently under TIME PRESSURE清楚有条理地在规定时间内说
If not, you will have to practice each passage at least 10 TIMES如果做不到,练习10遍

7 Make sure you can say it clearly and coherently by referring to your NOTES ONLY instead of a complete written passage 只看简单而潦草的笔记,练习连辞呈段
If not, you will have to practice at least 5 times如果做不到,练习5遍

8 Make sure you RECORD your passage and listen to yourself 录音
You will find all the flaws when you are listening to yourself, then you know where to go from there 旁观者清,一听就明白自己是怎么回事

GUESS WHAT? YOU ARE NOW READY FOR IBT Speaking Test, GOOD LUCK!

关于发音
ETS认为,只要你说的英语Easy to Understand就OK,这么说吧,只要你的发音不会引起误会,你就真的OK. 比如Quarter 还是Court, Ash Tree 还是Ash Tray, Feel 还是Fill。虽然发音只差了那么一点点,但是人家绝对被你弄晕了,不知道你是要钱,还是要打官司。中国考生来自五湖四海,新疆的,福建的,广东的,东北的,四川的,云南的。说起英语来,都带着浓重的地方口音:山东英语,东北英语,广东英语,内蒙英语。托福考官一听就找不着北了,中国学生不服气,说“我这英语至少比印度人强吧?” 偏偏呢,老美倒觉得印度英语Easy to understand,因为不管是来自新德里还是旁遮普,一张嘴说英语就是滴里嘟噜的那个味儿。再说,印度英语已经被西方人接受了好几百年,而中国改革开放不过二三十年,闭塞而固执的美国考官还需要一些时间才能慢慢熟悉中国学生五花八门的口音。改变别人是很难的,只有改变我们自己。同胞们,只有努力纠正发音了。多模仿,多听,多练。最有效的办法是跟读加跟说,这是唯一能同步练习耳朵和嘴巴,又能纠正发音的方法。

最后送大家一句话:Luck Favors the Prepared Minds (好运只给那些万事俱备的人),准备新托福,一定要打有准备之仗。

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新托福听力高分突破:实力+技巧+速度+经验--《IBT备考导航》之十 六
为什么要选择新托福?

具有挑战性自然不必说了,最重要的一点是它有用、实用。听力段子的内容非常up-to-date,更新很快,你所听到的词和句子都是此时此刻发生在美国校园内的真实对话。花在新托福上的功夫绝对不是赔本的买卖,因为新托福对于全面提高听力和口语相当有帮助。还有呢,新托福是一个很有效的检验标准,衡量自己这英语到底学到了一个什么程度,所以,把目标定得高一些,成功了,你的自信心必然大涨。

想明白了为什么要做一件事,剩下的就是一个词:Down-To-Earth,脚踏实地去做就行了。至于难还是不难,不必再抓耳挠腮了。轻而易举得来的东西,价值也不会太高。

新托福听力新特点

其实,新托福听力部分本身并不可怕,除了一个字“长,”其余的都更加User-friendly。其中的大变化包括以下几大点:

l. 整个铲除了容易丢分的笔试小对话,使容易出错的各种语气题、习语和肯定否定回答大幅降低;
2. 允许考生记笔记,因祸得福,既然要记笔记,语速自然放慢;
3. 重复信息,这样的题多半是考教授的语气和说话目的,大概有2-3题,通常问Listen again and then answer the question “why does the professor say this?”

以前Part A小对话的语气题速度很快,所能借鉴的上下文很少,而新托福的重复信息题语速慢,线索很多,而且是对走神的最佳补救。很多考过新托福而没考过笔考托福的考生都觉得笔考的Part A无法忍受。

新托福关键的难词和术语显示在屏幕上,使考生心里踏实不少。

新托福听力考试包括两个部分,每个部分包括一个长对话和两个长段子,考试时间总共是50分钟。每个部分考17道题,答题时间为10分钟,节奏由自己控制,简单的题速度快一点,拿不准的题可以多花些功夫。平均来讲,大概每道题的答题时间是20秒左右。考题依然延续机考托福的规则,不可看,不可逆,不可改。

听力段子的内容是模拟真实课堂,考察你是否具备在北美上大学的实力,是否能应付教室内和教室外的各种交流。

新托福听力新题型

1. 表格判断题;
2. 多项选择题;
3. 语调语气题混入段子, 考态度语气和说话动机。

从2005年9月以来的北美新托福真题看,新托福常考段子题的内容集中在环保、地理、考古、美国历史、动物学、生物学和植物学等。长对话部分集中考察校园生活,即同学与同学之间,同学与老师之间关于生活和学习的种种对话。

取得新托福听力高分(25分以上)的关键是看长段子题做得如何,听力全部34道题中只能错5-6题才能突破25分。所以要求考生长对话绝对不能错题,长段子平均每段错一题。应该说长对话部分难度并不高,此部分拿满分绝对不在话下。

说实话,由于新托福是高度标准化的考试,在准备了一段时间,摸透了ETS出题规律和套路,掌握了各种答题技巧之后,想错题也不是一件容易的事。

新托福听力制胜的关键

l. 增加词汇量.熟练掌握常考场景词汇,包括学习场景(选课、授课、考试、作业、论文、图书馆、科目)。背单词必须做到纠正发音;
2.反复记忆;
3.耳朵熟悉。考生之所以觉得听不懂,一是生词太多,即便语速再慢,还是不知所云。二是速度跟不上,听起来跟一锅粥似的。耳朵跟眼睛差着十万八千里。人家说话已经说到哈尔滨了,你的耳朵还停留在北京西客站呢。背单词绝对不能只用眼睛,要听单词,说单词,让耳朵熟悉它;
4.单词要有选择地背.动词和形容词绝对要见一个背一个,因为动词是一个句子的灵魂,形容词表明立场、状态和心情。此外,词要一串一串地背,近义词、同义词、反义词,这样效率能提高许多。还要注意词的不同形式,比如miracle变成形容词成了miraculous,
autumn 变成形容词成了autumnal,用眼睛看可能不成问题,但是听起来由于重音的变化,发而成了生词。再次证明词一定要音形同步,及眼睛和耳朵同步;
5.掌握美音发音特点,注意连读、吞音、音变;
6.辨别句子中的重点词、重读词、反复重复的词;
7.熟练掌握语气语调,判断态度和立场;
8.掌握出题规律,一边听,一边判断出什么地方有题;
9.练习边听边记,不是逐字逐句都记,而是有题的地方才记,最后两条是听力功夫的最高境界。

实力加强之后,另一个重要的备战步骤是积累作战经验。很多考生发现明明每段都听懂了,一选就错,有时候连答案还没看清楚就选了;还有的考生前面各段都聚精会神表现出色,听到最后一段,心想终于快熬到头了,稍稍放松了精神,结果功亏于骙;还有的考生,一边听一边不耐烦,心想怎么还不完,怎么还不完,结果至少5道题没听清。

最后送给大家一句话,A Thousand Mile Journey Starts at the First Step!
千里之行始于足下,只要从今天开始努力,那么每天你都会进步多一些,而且一定会成功的。

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口译用的速记符号,IBT考试中笔记或能参考--《IBT备考导航》之十 七

常用速记符号

大于 >    小于 <    小于或等于 ≤     大于或等于 ≥     等于、意味着 =     不等于 ≠     约等于 ≈    

遗憾、悲哀 ;     高兴、荣兴 (     错误、否、不、否定 ×      正确、对、好、肯定 √      不同意 N     同意 Y     上升、增加 ↑      

下降、减少 ↓     强、好 +    更强、更好 ++    弱、差 -    更弱、更差 ――     因为 ∵     所以 ∴

优秀 ★     属于 ∈     胜利 V     问题、疑问 ?    和、与 &     结论是 =>

将来 ;     过去 <     促进、发展↗     一方面·/     另一方面 /·     关系 ·/·     国家 □     国与国 □/□     原因 ←     导致、结果 →     对立、冲突 ><     波折 <<

会议、会面 ⊙     进入 ∩     接触、交往 ∞     分歧 ⊥     非常、十分重要 **     坚持 ≡     关键 !    奇观 !     有关 @     替换为 ∽     但是 ‖     与……比较而言 ∥     空洞 ○     代表 △

口译成功与否在很大程度上取决于译员在口译表达前对感知的信息进行记录的能力。记录分为“脑记”和“笔记”两种。人脑的记忆由短时记忆和长时记忆两部分组成。顾名思义,短时记忆是一种操作性的暂时记忆,长时记忆属于一种储存性的永久记忆。影响一个人短时记忆的因素很多,其中最主要的因素是记忆内容的意义性。

一、做口译笔记时的注意事项 1.口译笔记应记要点,切忌求记“全”。口译笔记是记忆的延伸或补充,不应也不必取代记忆。口译笔记的主要内容是概念、命题、名称、数字、组织机构和逻辑关系(如大小、先后、正反、上下、升降、因果关系等),笔记单位以表达意群的词语和符号为主。 2.口译笔记求快求精,但不可潦草。 3.口译笔记可使用来源语,也可使用目标语,也可以双语兼用。只要有利于口译的准确性和流利性,不必拘泥于某种文字或符号。例如,“联合国大会”可笔录为“UN”或“联大”。 4.口译笔记使用大量常见略语,例如:cf(compare), Co(company), eg(for example), etc(and so on), esp(especially), ie(that is), max(maximum), min(minimum), ref(reference), std(standard), usu(usually),等。二、常用速记符号速记是一项特殊的技巧,速记语言是由一套完整的符号组成的体系。在口译实践中逐步掌握一些简单的速记符号是有益的。

P.S这应该是国内口译用的参考材料,很多涉及官方交流用语,对于IBT不完全适用,大家最好根据个人习惯来组织相应的速记符号。而且上述符号中有重复的(如遗憾、悲哀 ;    将来 ; )

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IBT 评分标准--表格--《IBT备考导航》之十 八
 

DETERMINE READING AND LISTENING COMPLETE TEST SCORES

To determine a scaled score in a Reading or Listening Complete Test section, you must first determine the number of points you received in the section. In Listening, you simply need to count the number of questions you answered correctly (out of 34) because the number of points is the number of questions you answered correctly. In Reading, you must determine the number of points you received on the last question of each reading (numbers 13, 26, and 39) before you can determine the total number of points. The last question of each reading is a chart question that is worth more than one point, and you may receive partial credit for a partially correct answer. (For example, perhaps a question is worth three points and has 6 correct answers. If you correctly answer all 6, then you get 3 points. If you correctly answer 4 or 5, then you get 2 points. If you correctly answer 2 or 3, then you get 1 point. If you por­tly answer 0 or 1, then you get 0 points.) After you have determined the number of points you have earned on the chart questions, add this number to the number correct on the rest of questions 1 through 39 to determine your total points out of 45. When you know the total points you received in a Reading or Listening Mini-Test section, you can refer to the following irt to determine your scaled score out of 30 for this section.

TOTAL POINTS

READING SCALED SCORE

LISTENING SCALED SCORE

45

30

-----

44

29

----

43

29

----

42

28

----

41

27

----

40

26

----

39

25

----

38

24

----

37

23

----

36

22

----

35

21

----

34

20

30

33

19

29

32

18

27

31

17

26

30

16

25

29

16

24

28

15

23

27

14

22

26

13

21

25

12

19

24

11

17

23

10

16

22

9

15

21

8

15

20

8

14

19

7

13

18

7

11

17

6

9

16

6

8

15

5

8

14

5

7

13

4

6

12

4

5

11

3

4

10

3

4

9

2

3

8

2

3

7

1

2

6

1

2

5

0

1

4

0

0

3

0

0

2

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

UNDERSTAND SPEAKING SCORING CRITERIA

In the Speaking section, you will receive a score of 0 through 5; this score of 0 through 5 will then be converted to a scaled score out of 30. The criteria for Speaking scores of 0 through 4 are listed below.

4

ANSWER TO QUESTION

The student answers the question thoroughly.

COMPREHENSIBILITY

The student can be understood completely.

ORGANIZATION

The student's response is well organized and developed.

FLUENCY

The student's speech is generally fluent.

PRONUNCIATION

The student has generally good pronunciation.

GRAMMAR

The student uses advanced grammatical structures with a high degree of accuracy.

VOCABULARY

The student uses advanced vocabulary with a high degree of accuracy.

3

ANSWER TO QUESTION

The student answers the questions adequately but not thoroughly.

COMPREHENSIBILITY

The student can generally be understood.

ORGANIZATION

The student's response is organized basically and is not thoroughly developed.

FLUENCY

The student's speech is generally fluent, with minor problems.

PRONUNCIATION

The student has generally good pronunciation, with minor problems.

GRAMMAR

The student uses either accurate easier grammatical structures or more advanced grammatical structures with some errors.

VOCABULARY

The student uses either accurate easier vocabulary or more advanced vocabulary with some errors.


2

ANSWER TO QUESTION

The student discusses information from the task but does not answer the question directly.

COMPREHENSIBILITY

The student is not always intelligible.

ORGANIZATION

The student's response is not clearly organized and is incomplete or contains some inaccurate points.

FLUENCY

The student's speech is not very fluent and has a number of problems.

PRONUNCIATION

The student's pronunciation is not very clear, with a number of problems.

GRAMMAR

The student has a number of errors in grammar or uses only very basic grammar fairly accurately.

VOCABULARY

The student has a number of errors in vocabulary or uses only very basic vocabulary fairly accurately.

1

ANSWER TO QUESTION

The student's response is only slightly related to the topic.

COMPREHENSIBILITY

The student is only occasionally intelligible.

ORGANIZATION

The student's response is not clearly organized and is only minimally on the topic.

FLUENCY

The student has problems with fluency that make-the response difficult to understand.

PRONUNCIATION

The student has problems with pronunciation that make the response difficult to understand.

GRAMMAR

The student has numerous errors in grammar that interfere with meaning.

VOCABULARY

The student has numerous errors in vocabulary that interfere with meaning.

0

The student either says nothing or fails to answer the question.

UNDERSTAND WRITING SCORING CRITERIA

In the Writing section, you will receive a score of 0 through 5; this score of 0 through 5 will then be converted to a scaled score out of 30. The criteria for Writing scores of 0 through 5 are listed below.


5

ANSWER TO QUESTION

The student answers the question thoroughly.

COMPREHENSIBILITY

The student can be understood completely.

ORGANIZATION

The student's response is maturely organized and developed.

FLOW OF IDEAS

The student's ideas flow cohesively.

GRAMMAR

The student uses advanced grammatical structures with a high degree of accuracy.

VOCABULARY

The student uses advanced vocabulary with a high degree of accuracy.

4

ANSWER TO QUESTION

The student answers the question adequately but not thoroughly.

COMPREHENSIBIHTY

The student can generally be understood.

ORGANIZATION

The student's response is adequately organized and developed.

FLOW OF IDEAS

The student’s ideas generally flow cohesively.

GRAMMAR

The student uses either accurate easier grammatical structures or more advanced grammatical structures with a few errors.

VOCABULARY

The student uses either accurate easier vocabulary or more advanced vocabulary with some errors.

3

ANSWER TO QUESTION

The student gives a basically accurate response to the question.

COMPREHENSIBILITY

The student's basic ideas can be understood.

ORGANIZATION

The student's response is organized basically and is not thoroughly developed.

FLOW OF IDEAS

The student's ideas flow cohesively sometimes and at other times do not.

GRAMMAR

The student has a number of errors in grammar or uses only very basic grammar fairly accurately.

VOCABULARY

The student has a number of errors in vocabulary or uses only very basic vocabulary fairly accurately.

2

ANSWER TO QUESTION

The student discusses information from the task but does not answer the question directly.

COMPREHENSIBILITY

The student's ideas are not always intelligible.

ORGANIZATION

The students’ response is not clearly organized and is incomplete or contains some inaccurate points.

FLOW OF IDEAS

The student's ideas often-do not flow cohesively.

GRAMMAR

The student has numerous errors in grammar that interfere with meaning.

VOCABULARY

The student has numerous errors in vocabulary that interfere with meaning.

1

ANSWER TO QUESTION

The student's response is only slightly related to the topic.

COMPREHENSIBILITY

The student's ideas are occasionally intelligible.

ORGANIZATION

The students response is not clearly organized and is only minimally on the topic.

FLOW OF IDEAS

The student's ideas do not flow smoothly.

GRAMMAR

The student produces very little grammatically correct language.

VOCABULARY

The student uses very little vocabulary correctly

0

The student either writes nothing or fails to answer the question.

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新托福(iBT-TOEFL)写作满分详解及模板--《IBT备考导航》之十 九
新托福 (Internet Based TOEFL 简称iBT-TOEFL) 自去年2005年9月在北美开考以来,很多考生谈此色变。有的考生把新托福戏称为 “ 我变态”(iBT 亦是我变态的谐音)。不少同学纷纷转考其他类型的考试,一试不爽,又转回iBT, 这么几个回合下来时间就被浪费掉了。纵观新托福考试的4大块,中国考生要在短期内(2 - 4个月)迅速取得新托福高分(100分以上), 考生必须有相当的应考策略。笔者对考生的新托福成绩作了大量统计和分析后发现考生考分相对高的2个部分是听力和写作。考分相对低的是阅读和口语。今天,作者着重和大家聊聊如何在极短的时间内(3天的时间)迅速取得作文27分以上,并给出作者参加新托福考试取得满分的作文部分模块,供各位考生参考。

作文考试作为新托福的第4部分, 共有2篇作文。

一.Integrated writing ( 结合写作)

第一篇作文 叫做Integrated writing ( 结合写作), 给考生3分钟读一篇文章(大概200字左右),然后听一段关于对此文章的评论,结束后让考生写出150-225字的作文(只能打字),典型的问法是:Summarize the points made in the lecture you just heard, explaining how they cast doubt on point made in the reading. 听力结束后,阅读部分会再次出现并保留在电脑屏幕的左半部分,考生便可以开始写作。此文的评分标准有2条: 1. 要点分 2. 语言分

要写好此篇作文关键有以下几点:
1. 考生必须从根本上掌握英语八股文的结构。阅读时,考生必须按照八股文结构,记下这些points和support points 的details.
2. 听力时,考生要记下说话者是如何反对这些Points的。注意的是说话者的反对顺序不一定按照阅读文章的演进顺序进行。
3. 如果points 没有漏掉,接下来的关键就是考生如何表达说话者和阅读内容的关系了。

以下是作者参加新托福考试时关于smart cars写作使用的模块,提供给大家参改。

The lecture is mainly discussing ______, ________ and ___________ by _________, challenging what are stated in the reading passage that _________, _________ and _______.

First of all, the speaker thinks that ___________. In contrast, the reading passage believes that _____________. So, the lectures totally disagree with the view made in the reading.

Second, the speaker discusses ___________, Contradicting what is stated in the reading that _____________________.

Finally, the speakers raises the issue that ___________. This point disagrees that ________________ demonstrated in the reading.

So, the contents in the reading passage are totally jeopardized by the speaker and the speaker has totally different ideas on the topics made in the reading.

掌握好以上模板,此篇作文实在是太好准备了。

二. Independent writing

此篇文章和以前的笔试及机考没有什么大的区别,给30分钟写一篇300字的文章(只能打字)。此篇文章的评分标准有4个:
1. Address the writing topic effectively (有效地阐明主题)
2. Well organized and well-developed (条理清楚,发展充分)
3. Use specific details and examples to support your view (论据具体明确)
4. Word choices and sentence variety (遣词造句能力)

典型的问法是:Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

考生要取得这篇作文的高分或满分,以上4条均重要。此篇文章写几段为好?我建议大家最多五段,至少写4段。 此作文模板我曾在网上公布过,在此不再重述。

以上2篇作为评分有个共性,是按照percentile进行,即使是满分作文,也允许你有错误,到底有多少错,很难说,关键是你和其他考生相比你的作文好坏。

作文应该是新托福最容易准备的部分,写作文不能钻牛角尖,不一定写很多篇(我建议每个考生以上两种文章各写个3-5 篇), 考生要学会用简单的英文单词来阐明观点。

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新托福阅读部分巡讲讲稿内容-吴 鹏-《IBT备考导航》之二十

“方便”语出《法华经·方便品》:“吾从成佛以来,种种因缘、种种譬喻,广演言教,无数方便,引导众生令离所执。”本文这里的所谓方便,理正为方,言巧称便,就是根据形势的变化(这里主要指针对新托福考试的变化),选择随机应变的教化机智,即学习方法。新托福考试将于2006年8月在中国大陆地区推出。这一消息牵动着千万考生的心。许多考生对于新托福考试的形式感到十分的陌生,由此也对新托福考试产生了相当的恐惧心理。本文将深度剖析新托福考试中阅读部分的特点,目的在于一方面帮助考生全面而深刻地了解新托福阅读部分的考试特点,另一方面帮助考生透彻地分析新托福阅读部分考试的规律。

一、新托福考试阅读部分的六大变化
1. 新托福考试阅读部分中的四个主要按键及功能
在新托福考试阅读部分,阅读文章出现在电脑屏幕的右边(这和GRE机考形式恰好相反,因为在GRE机考阅读部分,阅读文章出现在电脑屏幕的左边),而相应的题目出现在电脑屏幕的左边。因为文章很长,所以需要借助于滚动条的滚动,才能看到全文。在阅读部分,考生可以通过点击Next button向前浏览所有的问题,也可以通过点击Back button回视前面的问题,并返回到文章的最开头。托福阅读部分还拥有一个review功能的按键,通过点击Review button考生将会在Review Screen看到所有的问题,和看到这些问题的状态---answered, not answered, not yet seen。最后,新托福的阅读部分还有一个Help button,考生点击这个按键之后,将会得到a list of topics for which helpful explanations are available。

2. 新托福考试阅读部分的文章长度、题目数量及考试时间均有变化
原有形式的托福考试,其阅读部分的时间为55分钟,需要完成5篇文章,每篇文章的长度在350字左右,每篇文章后面的题目数量在10道左右,也就是说题目的总数量为50道。而新托福考试阅读部分的具体安排见下表:

READING SECTION
Reading Text    Time Allowed  Length of Passage  Number of Questions
Passage 1          20 minutes    600-700 words        12-14
Passage 2          20 minutes    600-700 words        12-14
Passage 3          20 minutes    600-700 words        12-14
Passage 4 & 5    20 minutes    600-700 words        12-14 each

需要注意的是:
(1) Passage 4 & 5属于加试部分,即考生在阅读部分所遇到的文章数量可能是3篇,也可能是5篇,那么相应的考试的时间为60分钟和100分钟;
(2) 阅读部分的考试时间是Preset的,即阅读部分考试的总时间是固定不变的,但做每篇文章,做每道题目所花费的时间由考生自己灵活掌握;
(3) 阅读文章明显增长,达到了700字左右。

3. 新托福考试阅读文章中的专业词汇的处理和题目定位的处理均有变化
新托福阅读部分一个非常glossary的特点是:A word in blue in a passage indicates that a definition is available for the word. Clicking on the word brings up this definition。也就是说凡是在阅读文章中所遇到的生僻的专业词汇,都会呈现出蓝色,点击后将会给出这个单词的定义和解释。
新托福阅读部分中所有的关于Language Use的问题都是对文章中的一个单词、一句话或者一个段落所发问的,并且对于此类题目定位处理上的一个最为鲜明的特点是:Whenever a question refers to a particular word or sentence in the passage, the word or sentence is highlighted. You don not need to search for it. Detail questions on TOEFL iBT identify the particular paragraph in which the answer can be found, so you do not need to scan the passage in order to find the location of an answer to a detail question.也就是说新托福考试的阅读不再考察Language Use问题定位的能力。这大大降低了题目本身的难度。

4. 新托福考试阅读部分中的干扰选项(distracter)的设置更为复杂
通过上面的第3点我们已经知道在新托福阅读部分考试中,很多的细节题目不再需要定位了,这就降低了题目本身的难度。ETS为了在题目难度上做一平衡,采取的方法是将干扰选项的设置变得更为复杂,大有向GRE靠拢的趋势,不仅干扰选项增多,干扰性也明显增强了,尤其对于Paraphrasing的题型显得尤为突出。

5. 新托福考试阅读部分的题型形式变化多端,分值也呈现出巨大变化
新托福考试题目的形式变得多样化了,相应题目的分值也出现了巨大变化。我们可以把新托福中的阅读题型分为三种:
(1) Click on One Answer: For this multiple-choice type of question, you will choose the best of four possible answers,此类题目是传统的四选一的题目,其分值为1分;
(2) Add a Sentence: For this type of question, you will click on a square to add a sentence to the passage. 这种插入句子题的文章中有4个“[■]”,然后题目给考生一句话,问考生这句话应该插在文章中哪一个所标“[■]”的地方。一般,题目的提问方式是这样的:Look at the four squares [■] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage,此类题目的分值也为1分;
(3) Drag Answer Choices: 此类题型在做法上的最大特点在于它不是要求点击选项,而是拖拉考生认为正确的选项到相应的表格中。其具体形式又可以分为两大类,而其分值也会随着具体形式的变化而变化:
A. Summarizing the Most Important Points题型:
此类题目的提问方式是这样的:An introductory sentence for a brief summary of the passage is provided below. Complete the summary by selecting the THREE answer choices that express the most important ideas in the passage. Some sentenced do not belong in the summary because they express ideas that are not presented in the passage or are minor ideas in the passage。这类题目主要考查了考生对于重要论据和重要观点的掌握,分值为2分,具体评分规则如下:
Points Possible   Answers Correct    Points Earned

 3 points                

                                    3                       2
                                    2                       1
                                  0--1                     0

B. Understanding details as they relate to the main idea (schematic table)题型:
此类题型主要考查了考生对于结构重要信息的掌握,其提问方式是:Select the appropriate sentences from the answer choices and match them to the type of ---- that they describe. TWO of the answer choices will NOT be used。根据answer choices的数量,7个中选5个或者9个中选7个归类,其相应的分值为3分和4分。具体评分规则如下:
Points Possible    Answers Correct    oints Earned

3 Points

                               5                             3
                               4                             2
                               3                             1
                             0--2                           0


4 Points

                               7                             4
                               6                             3
                               5                             2
                               4                             1
                             0—3                          0

6. 新托福考试阅读部分增加了4种题型
新托福考试阅读部分增加了4种题型,分别是Paraphrasing题型(同义改写题型),Understanding Coherence题型(插入句子题型),Organization Information题型(结构信息表格题型),Summarizing the Most Important Points题型(总结重要观点题型)。

二、以一篇文章现场感受新托福阅读考试的特点
将文章发给听众,现场感受一下,新托福的文章的特点

The Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was one of the most fascinating and gripping phenomena to emerge from the brutal period of American slavery. In fact, it was neither underground nor any kind of railroad, but an intricate, loosely organized, and highly secretive network of people dedicated to helping black slaves escape from bondage in the southern states to freedom in the northern United States, Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean. Because few of its members dared to keep records of their activities, much of the Railroad’s history has been transmitted orally, or lost. Nevertheless, it is possible to reconstruct a vivid picture of the people involved and the great challenges they faced.
Established as early as the late 16th century, when the first captive laborers were brought to the New World from Africa, the Railroad consisted of an informal arrangement of “stationmasters”—people who provided food and refuge, their “station”—the houses, shops, or barns where they provided shelter, and “conductors”—those who guided escaped slaves along the difficult routes to safety. All kinds of people worked on the Railroad, including preachers, politicians, farmers, storekeepers, former slaves, and even Native American. Most had no knowledge that they worked as part of an organization that reached all across the United States—but they were united by their hatred of the institution of slavery and their desire to help those struggling to escape.
Perhaps the most famous of Railroad workers was Harriet Tubman. Born a slave in Maryland, Tubman escaped through the Railroad at the age of 25, and eventually became a conductor herself. Over a ten—year period, she made nearly 20 trips back into the South to lead to safety many members of her family, and dozens of others besides, perhaps as many as 300 in all.
The conditions faced by runaways were severe. Often forced to travel at night, they would navigate by the North Star. Rivers, swamps, and forests lay in their way. They could carry little food, and depended on stationmasters and conductors to keep them from starvation. Sometimes the lucky ones could travel by wagon, ship, or horse, but most had to go on foot. If they were unable to actually leave the southern states, they might have no choice but to take up residence deep in swamps or in mountainous areas, separated from their families and isolated from the world, or to join communities of Native Americans.
The risks faced by fugitives were formidable Recapture was unthinkable. Escapees would endure terrible punishments, including mutilation or amputation of limbs, harder labor even than before was virtually guaranteed, or sale “down the river”—deeper into the South and even farther from freedom. After the Fugitive Slave Law was passed in 1850, a new class of professional slave—hunters arose, paid handsomely to catch runway slaves and return them to their owners; they could even pursue their quarry into the free northern regions. Young men were the most successful in traveling the Railroad, though sometimes women and children would also manage to escape. Strength and speed were critical. Slaves would occasionally employ disguises, trying to pass themselves as messengers on errands, or even, in the case of the lighter—skinned slaves, as whites. Holidays and weekends were the best times to escape, or any other circumstance that permitted a head start on the authorities.
Activities on the Railroad reached a peak in the last few decades before the outbreak of the American Civil War in 1861.The great political tension created by the institution of slavery was already tearing the country apart. Whites in the South generally felt that slavery was an indispensable part of their culture. Their economy certainly depended on it, and moreover, they resented being dictated to from the North and from Washington. Those in the North, on the other hand, could only see the brutality in slavery, and the hypocrisy it meant in a country claiming to be founded on the principle of freedom and equality for all mankind. Though terribly destructive, the Civil War ultimately settled the question, and with the ratification of the 13th amendment to the U.S. Construction on December 18, 1865, it became law what “neither slavery nor involuntary servitude…shall exist in the United States.”

三、结束语
谈到这里,我们已经将新托福考试阅读部分的特点做了详尽地剖析,同时也比较深刻和全面地分析了如何做到substantial understanding的问题,也就是给出了方法论的问题。有了这样的方法论,其余的工作应该是会水到渠成的。最后想用三句话来结束本文,希望这三句话能给在新托福征途上的考生以鼓励和启迪:Nothing more than diligence can predict your success。If you lie upon roses when young, you’ll lie upon thorns when old. With time and patience the leaf of the mulberry becomes satin.

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