“A powerful business leader has far more opportunity to influence the course of a community or a nation than does any government official.”
1, business leader more powerful influence in modem society by their powerful influence market economy. e.g. GDP is a measure of a countries overall economic output, say the good and services consumed within a time period, and it is also an indicator of national standard of living. To a large extent, it is the industry or, more specifically, the powerful leader, who influence the GDP of a nation, rather than the government official. Although government may setup some regulations, but business leaders still play the key role in this issue.
2.while, industrial and technological eras have further increase the influence brought by powerful business , eg: Bill Gates, who by the nature of their industries and their business, not by force of the law, have transformed our economy. Also the introduction of digital technology has spawned great advance in medicine and physics, helping us to better understand the world, to enhance our health, and to prolong our lives, all this appreciated advantage should give credit to the powerful business, not the government.
3. One argument against my contention may assert that in some traditional official-centered societies, government leaders still monopolized the power to influence the whole society and greatly interfere with the economy , in that case, the government officials will have far more opportunities to show influence or even curb the community or nation. But you may find the trend that nations worldwide are developing towards the more democratic oriented. As a result, the power and chance that a government official possesses is increasingly impaired.
In sum, Modern business leaders, by virtue far-reaching impact of their industries, have supplanted lawmakers as the great opportunities of the world and prime movers of society作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 14:54
“As technologies and the demand for certain services change, many workers will lose their jobs. The responsibility for those people to adjust to such change should belong to the individual worker, not to government or to business.”
Individual has primary responsibility for learning new skills, and finding work
Education is aim to equipped the student with a broader base of practical and theoretical coursework that affords students the flexibility to move from one career to another,
Industry should bear some the responsibility too, industries determins the particular directions of technological process, and subsequent social changes. Help displaced workers to adjust through training,or stipends for further education
Government should help , because it can help. Help in record and observin the trends in worker displacement and in job opportunities, by providing this information to individuals so that they can make wise decisions about their own further education and job searches.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 14:56
“Schools should be responsible only for teaching academic skills and not for teaching ethical and social values.”
The first purpose of education is to cultivate students’ minds, helping them to grow up to become good citizens and happy persons.
B. For this purpose, schools should stress the teaching of humanities.
C. Another purpose of education is to train students to be productive workers.
D. For this purpose, schools should also include occupational training courses in the curriculum.
personal enrichment比job preparation对人的发展和培养更重要
help students think independently, have a clear goal in life , be able to appreciate and respect other people's viewpoints, cooperate, comprimise
liberal studies help students develop thoughtful and consistent value system, ethical standards
The list should go further- to include caring, campassion and willingness to help one other
foster correct world outlook, views on life and values, the course will help to develop of students' virtue and set up positive views of life and value. More important than academic skills, Moral corruption 道德败坏， 如何成功
respect and tolerance， respect for individual persons is a basic ethical value that requires us to acknowledge the fundamental equality of all people. And tolerance of difference among individuals and their viewpoints is required to actualize many of our basic constitutional rights- include life, liberty pursuit of happiness, and freedom of speech and religion.
instruction on issue of clear spiritual or religious implications is best left to parents and churches. But the parents with limited capability, Only a parent can truly know the unique needs of a child—including what educational choices are best suited for the child. the good and bad are intermingled良莠不齐 指望count on 引导 guide values 社会价值观念Parents are not necessarily best equipped to know what is best for their children when it comes to education.
Parents are too subjective to always know what is truly best for their children. They may try to overcome their own shortcomings and failed self-expectations through their children's accomplishments and other decision detrimental to children's development.
不能灌输具体的moral，individual 是distinctive的作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 14:57
“Location has traditionally been one of the most important determinants of a business’s success. The importance of location is not likely to change, no matter how advanced the development of computer communications and others kinds of technology becomes.”
In retail, or storefront business, location is still a key ingredient of business success. The extent to which this will continue to be true , given the inexorable growth of internet commerce, will vary among industries
Someone may argue that, We can obtain everything from airline tickets to a language course and holiday wardrobe via the internet, in the convenience of our own homes. But it oversimplify or overlook the services and enjoyable shopping experience
In more traditional retail sectors, such as clothing, home improvement, an in-person visit to a retail store is often necessary, to try on clothes for fit, compare among a full selection of texture, colors and styles. And the business location must be carefully chosen to meet the needs of the defined target group. Say if a spa shop located them in a middle of industry district will not be so profit as it in the residential area. Also, shopping cost for large items such as furniture, and appliance render the home shopping impracticable. Thus rapidly development technologies pose no serious threatens to main street, a location will continue to play a pivotal role in the fate of many retail business
Nevertheless, technology related industries are sure to move away from physical storefront to virtual ones. Book and magazines , software applications are more efficiently distributed electronically, computer companies such as Dell, which does not distribute through retail stores. Actually, few people really care about the location of the business when then consume such product.
In conclusion, consumer demand for convenient location will continue with respect to certain tangible products. While for other products alternative distribution system will gradually replace the storefront, rendering location to be a obsolete issue作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 14:59
All citizens should be required to perform a specified amount of public service. Such service would benefit not only the country as a whole but also the individual participants
Mandatory, individual liability
What’s more, the most important thing we pursue in the volunteer social work—the love for people and the realization of one’s social value—will be lost if a mandatory system is set up. People always bring a heart full of love to help others when they do these things voluntarily. But when they are forced to do certain services, people’s attitude may change greatly. They will do these things for pressure rather than for love. And they can no longer feel that they are realizing their special value in the world because everyone is doing the same. Therefore, such policy is quite possible to lead to a result that citizens’ passion for social services disappear in the last.
First we should never forget that, it is the local government, rather than individuals, should take full responsibilities of the public service. A very important role the government should play in public affairs is maintaining the public service. To achieve this, the government should employ some skilled workers to perform such public service, instead asking individual citizen to do such job. why it should not be a requirement for individual to carry out public service is that the citizens, by means of taxes, have already paid for that service.
Admittedly, Mandatory service may help to mitigate the Free rider, problem where those who do not contribute benefit from who do. And it will help to solve pressing social problems--- such as education, public health, and safety and environment .
And instead, the government should install in participants a sense of civic duty, community and individual responsibility,作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 14:59
“With the increasing emphasis on a global economy and international cooperation, people need to understand that their role as citizens of the world is more important than their role as citizens of a particular country.”
Although it is true that people should understand more about the importance of being citizens of the world, hardly can I agree that the role as world citizens necessarily transcend the role as national citizens. However, I believe as responsible world citizens, people should indeed broaden their horizon and make sensible decisions that benefit their own country in the long run.
Above all, the role of a responsible world citizen does not necessarily conflict with that of a national citizen. In fact, every nation's actions are likely to give some effect to other nations because the world are becoming more and more closely integrated, the well-being of any country might exert significant influence on other economies. Therefore, a citizen who contributes to the economic success of his or her own country is at the same time implementing the responsibility of a world citizen.
For example, the greenhouse effect are influencing all nations. Therefore, all people in the world need to combine their efforts together to solve this problem. In such situation, it is partially indisputable that people's role as citizens of the world is quite crucial.
Much in the same way, if people in every country commit themselves to solving national issues such as human rights and environmental protection, the world as a whole will benefit.
However, a qualified world citizen must also assume additional responsibilities and make wise decisions when national interests and international interests seem to conflict. Moreover, a world citizen has to understand more about other cultures in this world to achieve mutual understandings and avoid unnecessary conflicts. The idea of an increasingly integrated world suggests a pluralistic ethos whereby people of diverse histories and backgrounds maintain their cultural identities while at the same time coexist with other cultural representatives in a spirit of tolerance and mutual respect. Although people are naturally proud of their own national cultures, a narrow consciousness may retard the development of a harmonious international society.
On the other hand, not all of people in the world have some many connections with others. For instance, some of Mori people who live in New Zealand hardly contact with other people. They still live in a relative isolated area and keep the traditional style of life. Because few outside events can interfere their lives, Mori people are indifferent to the world occupied by modern cultures. It is clearly that the trend of globalization has reached every corner of the world and thus focusing on the outside world is not very important to some people such as those live in isolated areas. Considering from this aspect, it is too extremely to say that all people need to understand that their role as citizens of the world is more important than their role as citizen of a particular country.
In conclusion, although people need to put increasing emphasis on their role as world citizens, they should not abandon their national interests. The prosperity of an individual nation contributes the overall development of the world. Meanwhile, people have to enlarge their perspectives so that they can make responsible decisions as a world citizen.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:00
“Constant innovation and change within an organization are as likely to damage the organization as they are to improve it.”
Discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated above. Support your position with reasons and/or examples from your experience, observations, or reading.
When it comes to whether continuous innovation and change with an organization are more likely to worsen the organization than to improve it, different people have different opinions due to their respective angles. Weighing the merits and demerits arising from the innovation and change, I should say that I am a proponent of the existence of constant innovation and change within an organization.
To begin with, innovation and appropriate change can make an organization, in most cases, a better one. Not only innovation defined as the introduction of new ideas and methods is playing a decisive role in operations of organizations, but also small basic improvements, which in themselves might seem insignificant,but when taken together can effect a revolution in the way a business operate. 革新带来竞争，imporvement，There is a good example to describe that a shopping mall that tends to increase its sales extends its business hours to adjust customers’ changing behavior due to the switch of seasons. Any organization cannot avoid changing exclusively, while all the other organizations are changing. For example, nowadays most of companies establish an electronic system of finance and accounting. It is the standard that all individuals in this circumference should conform. Hence, under this condition, not the convenience of trading with other companies matters, but the fact that without such a standard system, the business cannot go on.
To be specific, when it concerns to such organizations as high-tech organizations and design and creativity organizations, innovation is the key factor that will make a decisive effect on the life and duration of the organization, which means constant change and innovation within the organization will bolster the members’ morale and raise the ability of creativity, thereby advancing their final product, design or their technology and technique into a high level. Another case in point is such organization as government department or offices, where there are strict hierarchy regulations and construction, has no necessity of a lot of and frequent changes and innovation; otherwise, the strict government system will be defeated and as a consequence, the effectiveness of the government will be challenged and the purpose of service will have to face the new challenge and regulations. And meanwhile, in such organizations, lack of experience of innovation, it is entirely possible that the constant innovation will bring the organization into a wrong direction.
In sum, to maximally harness innovation and to fully prepare for the change of circumference, it is wise to take a positive attitude to constant innovation and change within the organization. Furthermore, the implementation of introduce innovation and change is a net of variables so that we should take a careful consideration into the real reason when the organization suffers problem.
because the world is changing and there is so much competition out there
constant innovation and chang means 大量的投入，时间和金钱。可能入不敷出。。
admittedly,需要变化，但是是appropriate ,practical and acceptable....作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:02
people should disobey the laws that they think unjust
First, the law requires equal treatment, regardless of race, religion or any excuse. This means every citizen has the duty to obey the law no matter whether they think the law is just or unjust.
For example, in order to protect environment, Governments enacted environmental legislation, which seems unjust to these factories and their workers. By making efforts to reach the laws requirement, these factories should spend a large part of profits to buy advanced equipment to eliminate the concentration of contamination in the waste water. In the short run, the profit will be declined and the salaries of workers will be diminished. However, for the people who live in the nearby area, the laws playing an important role in helping them have a nice environment to live. Therefore, people do not ought to use unjustness of laws as an reason to disobey the laws. Such behavior might result in seriously bad consequence.
Fairness, a subjective judgment, can never be the standard of a law because everyone has a distinctive measure.
每个人都有value system，priorities. murderer, abortion
不可能gratify每个人, emotional, radical, chaos
涉及到法律的原则性问题bills are voted by the majority and after their pass, everyone is equal, which is the base of any democratic society.
Yet it is more important for individuals to resist unjust laws, for doing so will help improve the legal system of a nation.不合作主义civil disobedience作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:02
Physical activity and sports is as important in a student's academic s education
In schools across the United States, physical education has been substantially reduced—and in some cases completely eliminated—in response to budget concerns and pressures to improve academic test scores. Yet the available evidence shows that children who are physically active and fit tend to perform better in the classroom, and that daily physical education does not adversely affect academic performance. Schools can provide outstanding learning environments while improving children’s health through physical education.
Schools serve as an excellent venue to provide students with the opportunity for daily physical activity, to teach the importance of regular physical activity for health, and to build skills that support active lifestyles.
Unfortunately, most children get little to no regular physical activity while in school
Regular physical activity breaks during the school day may enhance academic performance. Introducing physical activity has been shown to improve cognitive performance and promote on-task classroom behaviour作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:03
In today’s fast-paced world, employers benefit more from the energy and new ideas of younger employees than from the experience and wisdom of older employees
learning from elders precedes intellectual innovations empirical evidence，
新人适应新的社会， 带来新的idea， innovation
History helps us learn the appropriateness of addressing certain issue. Help avoid repeating mistake,
87T "In any field of inquiry, the beginner is more likely than the expert to make important discoveries." 87． 在调查咨询领域，新手比专家更可能有重大发现
① Beginners have intense curiosity about the unknown and great courage to try new things, while experienced experts tend to be more conservative. Furthermore, beginners are highly motivated and enthusiastic people who are eager to establish their career and fame。如：DNA螺旋结构的发现者Watson, Crick. Figure out the structure of DNA American biologist who with Francis Crick proposed a spiral model, the double helix, for the molecular structure of DNA. He shared a 1962 Nobel Prize for advances in the study of genetics.
② 特殊问题上，若与大众意见不一致时，新手更有可能站出来。A-day-old puppy doesn't know to be afraid of the tiger。
③ 老手有更多经验。如：对隐私(intimate)、敏感(sensitive)问题的处理。作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:04
With the consideration of national security，government has the access to their citizens' library checkout records and Internet Activity history
“Businesses and other organizations have overemphasized the importance of working as a team. Clearly, in any human group, it is the strong individual, the person with the most commitment and energy, who gets things done.”
The relationship between Teamwork and individual commitment is complex, depends on 1, the goal toward which the traits are directed 2, the job of individual with an organization
Team work 重要：
the energy of an individual is, to some extent, limited. A good example may be found in the case that the successful run of a company. As we all know that, in the most cases, if one wants to run a company, he will need to get many people to form a team to fulfill as much task as possible. So a company may be divided into different departments to function various works, such as Marketing, Production, Finance, and so forth. Although there are some person with the most commitment and energy, under this the circumstance talked above, it is obvious that it is impossible for the strong individual to perform all of the works. As a result, businesses and other organizations have emphasized the crucial roles a team plays.
in a team, we can create more good ideas than an individual can. There is an old Chinese saying that:" the wisdom of three common people is greater than that of a cleaver one." To illustrate, we all know that there is no two leaves which is in the same condition, so does the backgrounds of the different people. Since differing in their backgrounds, different people may have different ideas towards the same thing. Consequently, the more people involved in a team, the more ideas we will have, which is the power of a team that of an individual could not compare with.
It is true that innovation is often achieved by a single person,
Seminar prevailing communication inspires new ideas that seminars are popular and well performed
an innovative idea from a sole aspect is not enough to run an innovative business.
team work – free rider
admittedly, a successful team requires both natural leaders and natural followers. Otherwise, a team will accomplish little. Individual autonomy is not under mined
in sum, individual strength, commitment and energy can complement a strong team approach. As long as individual autonomy is not undermined, all can operate in a synergistic manner to achieve an organization’s goals作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:04
“Since science and technology are becoming more and more essential to modern society, schools should devote more time to teaching science and technology and less to teaching the arts and humanities.”
学习arts 和 humanities的好处
Help student become better mathematicians and sceientists.
Helps inspire our own creativity and intellectual questioning , this is particular important in a are dominated by technology and science
Moreover, a balanced education contributes to great discoveries in science and technology. Researches have long shown the connection between cognitive skills and the function of human brain. A well balanced development of both hemispheres is able to benefit one’s ability to excel in both arts and sciences. Examples abound in famous scientists who are also skilled artists. Einstein, for instance, used to play violin to stimulate his inspirations in physics. In addition, recent researches also indicate that the reason for Einstein to achieve unparallellable unparalleled success in the field of physics is that he read many important books on philosophy when he was young. As a result, this master of physics was able to think about abstract issues concerning time and space from an innovative perspective.
Technology is valuable as an effective means to our important goals. But neither technology , nor the science on which it is founded, decides which goals are best, or judeges the moral value of the means we choose for their arraignment.
Finally, we should bear in mind that an indispensable function of education is to nurish nourish the soul. Although science and technology have brought to our life convenience and more free time to enjoy ourselves, they are just tools for most people. Many of us can operate home and office appliances, yet mere operation does not create a fulfilled mind. Conversely, arts and humanities teach us how to think, how to read, how to appreciate, how to communicate with others and how to express ourselves, all of which are important skills in modern society. From paper to computer screen, advances in technology facilitate the communication of ideas, but they can never replace ideas.
In conclusion, although science and technology are playing an increasingly important role in our society, we should not simply assign more weight to the education of science and technology. Rather we should emphasize on a balanced education of arts and humanities both for the good of the society and for the good of individual researchers.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:09
"The rise of multinational corporations is leading to global homogeneity. People everywhere are beginning to want the same products and services, and regional difference are rapidly disappearing." "Homogeneity: sameness, similarity."
Agree multinational corporations are indeed creating global sameness in consumer preference,
1、全球一体化并不是由于跨国公司的兴起而导致的，因果倒置，事实上是由于经济的发展，分工的细致(detailed assignment)，合作的扩大(expansion of cooperation)而导致全球一体化进程，进而才有了适应全球一体化的跨国公司的产生
这两个词最好用并列的形式，detailed assignment and expanded cooperation
2.1 在某些行业，确实存在着标准化服务和生产(standarized service and manufacturing)，但更多的公司选择了本土化和多样化(localization and diversity)；例如，四大、GE、IBM KFC在中国推出了老北京鸡肉卷 (Traditional Beijing Chicken Roll)（我饿了...汗！）...来讨好中国人的胃please 。ETC.、
use strategies of localization of both the management and the staff.
View1: the development of multinational corporations does enhance global unity by bringing the same methods of business administration as well as products and services throughout the world.
Evidence: western fast food bring by global chain express such us McDonald’sand KFC have change our diet habits a lot
View2: however, the effect of multinational corporations is far from eliminating regional deference. The corporations itself is blend in the regional features.
Evidence: Lay’s, one of the most successful multinational food manufacturers, add some flavor of traditional Asian dishes to its potato chips in order to attract foreign customers.
The phenomenon that blue jeans or some other fashions have become international indicates the trend towards world culture homogeneity.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:10
“The most effective business leaders are those who maintain the highest ethical standards.”
a leader should possess a high level of ethnical and moral standards, yet not the highest
首先，高尚的道德和伦理标准可以使领导者赢得人民的信任和对手的尊重。其次，moral regulations in his mind 防止leaders abuse their authorities and also the corruptions.
a leader is not a moralist, 他也有人性的一面，他的行为未必是完美的，但是这并不代表他不能成为一个成功的领导者。（Clinton's sex scandal &the marital discretions of President Kennedy)
4 一个成功的领导者还应该具备其它方面的特征（special knowledge, insight, management ability, creativity and so forth可以举Bill Gates 创造微软神话的例子）
When asked about what qualities constitute an effective business leader, different people may give different opinions. Initiative, vision, resolution, and courage can all be considered characters essential for a good leader. However, whether business leaders should maintain the highest ethical standards has always been a controversial issue. While I agree that business leaders should keep a proper ethical level, I believe that maintaining the highest ethical standards is not a prerequisite for successful leadership.
First of all, there is technically no uniform standard of ethics for the business leader to follow. In fact, usually leaders are willing to sustain an ethical image in order to win trust of employees and to establish reputation for the company. Unfortunately, ethical standard is such an intricate issue that it seems too hard to find a consistent and widely received one. In a vegetarian's view, eating animal meat is unethical; in the eyes of a Chinese customer, living separately from one's parents can also be ethical. Does that mean that a business leader should abstain from eating meat and move into his or her parents' house so that he or she can conform to the highest standards? Since an ocean of cultural perspectives exist in this highly diversified world, just paying attention to these requirements can seriously distract a leader from real work, not to mention practicing them.
Meanwhile, even a business leader fails to keep to the highest moral standards, whether in personal life or at work, he or she can still be a good leader who provides exhilarating reports for shareholders, satisfactory paychecks for employees, as well as high-quality products for customers. To be an effective leader, as we known, one should possess wisdom, competence, enlightenment, tolerance, shrewd, prowess, resolution and so on. so violations of certain moral standards in personal life may not prevent a business leader from making effective business decisions. Generally speaking, one’s private life rarely interferes with work. While in business, leaders sometimes even have to consciously act against the highest ethical standards in order to benefit the company. For example,
（special knowledge, insight, management ability, creativity and so forth可以举Bill Gates 创造微软神话的例子）
Admittedly, however, companies that maintain a high standard of ethic values and perform ethically can find it advantagerous to do so. By being responsible for the good of their customers, actively participating in the comunity, and making generous donations to those in need, companies can establish a good image in the society and therefore attact loyal customers. Nevertheless, keeping an appropriate level of ethics is far different from maintaining the highest standards.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:15
The most experienced candidate is usually the best candidate for the leadership position
8 N4 K: O( h) s, F7 d$ w+ t: G
Is the candidates with most experience the best candidates for the position of leadership? Differenct people hold different view due to their respective angles. On the one hand, as is well known and has always been advocated that the more experience the candidate has, the better leadership skill he may possess. On the other hand, others insist that leadership is not totally based on experience. In my view, whether a candidate is a best candidate for the position of leadership does not rely on the experience he has.
First, the important reason of my view is that experience cannot guarantee the leadership skill. A good example can be found in the case of Bain Company, during the recent recruitment for the position of a team leader, two candidates were remained in the final round of interview. One was graduated from college two years ago with good academic background and good interpersonal skill. Another candidate has 7 years working experience but has got little achievement in the field of his work. Obviously, the Bain company recruited the former one who is of greater potential, although the latter one may have greater experience.2 N f, A; u! R- M
In addition, there is another reason for me to choose the claim that candidate with most experience is the best candidates for the position of leadership to be wrong. The reason is not far to seek. For instance, Colgate Company would like to recruit a leader in the marketing department, the requirement is that the candidate should not have any previous working experience. Because each company has its own culture, the Colgate would like to cultivate a future leader without any previous experience which might influence his future work. There is no better example than this to illustrate that in some circumstance, the candidate with most experience is not suitable for the position of leadership.
Admittedly, experienced candidate may more skilful and have more practical experience. Consequently, they appear to be calmer when facing challenge situations. However, this alone cannot constitute a support that the candidates with most experience is the best candidates for the position of leadership. When the strength and weakness of the two candidates carefully compared, the conclusion is obvious
In conclusion, I advocate that the candidates with most experience is not the best candidates for the position of leadership. Because different company has different criteria for its talent and experience cannot guarantee good leadership skill. Due to the above-mentioned reasons, which sometimes intertwine to form an organic whole and thus become more persuasive, we may safely come to the conclusion that the candidates with most experience is not certainly the best candidates for the position of leadership作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:21
“Responsibility for preserving the natural environment ultimately belongs to each individual person, not to government.”
Introduce the conflict between political and economic interest, for this reason, also because serious environmental problems are generally large in scale, government participation is need to ensure environmental preservation,
The chief reason has to do with the nature of the individuals, who, left to their own device, will act according to their own short-time motivates and self- interest.Overconsumption by industry , they know the resources to be finite when alternative are at hand, demonstrate that self-interest extend to the use of environmental resource as well, only government holds the regulatory and enforcement power to impose the necessary standards and to ensure we achieve such goals.
Performance achieved by a sole individual is , to a large degree, limited to its ability,
environment protection, like energy conservation and Internet regulation, is in its nature a national or even a global issue, for one’s behavior influences not only his or her own utility, but also utilities of other people.
Admittedly, no one can deny individual’s indispensible role in environment preservation. The speaker, however, offers an either-or choice between government and individual responsibility in protecting environment; and he prefers the second choice, and fails to rule out possibility that adjusting these two choices in a middle ground might produce better results.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:21
“People are likely to accept as a leader only someone who has demonstrated an ability to perform the same tasks that he or she expects others to perform.”since people tend to respect and trust a leader who is able to do tasks he or she ask others to perform.
Despite the above merit, however, I cannot agree with the author as the claim that ability to perform specific task as the only criterion of leadership. While hard skills such as experience and professional ability are important, soft skills such as communication and smart insight also play a vital part in leading a business.
The prerequisite of becoming a good leader is to gain followers' trust. By displaying the ability to carry out his or her followers' tasks is the most effective way to achieve that goal. Furthermore, in the process, the leader can gain a new prospective of strength and weakness of his team and therefore, help him make better decisions in the future.
In the first place, the reason why I agree with the opinion is that trust between a leader and his followers is vital to the success of the overall operation. Without trust, a leader's vision and commands are unlikely to be carried out. Hence, a failure in leadership resulted from lacking hands-on experience can create a disastrous consequence. For instance, the result outing of Michael Brown, the director of FEMA serves as a good example. Michael Brown, a career lawyer and politician, lacks the fundamental administrative and coordinative skills that are required during emergency relief operations. In the aftermath of Katrina Hurricane, Michael Brown was simply unable to organize effective and responsive relief efforts. His incompetence sent a wrong message to his fellow admistrators. Not believing Michael Brown can oversee the relief campaign, his followers lost trust in him and refused to follow his commands. Hence, the situation in New Orleans became worse a few days after hurricane landed. Given the example above, it is obvious that a leader must earn his followers' trust by demonstrating he is at par in their skills.
In the second place, much evidence has shown that carrying out the same task as followers do, a leader will have a better understanding of the human resources he has in hands. Thus, the future plan can be tailored based on the strength of these resources. One of the counter examples is to have someone who does not have any engineering background to lead an engineering team. This case is more often proven to be a catastrophe than success. Imagine a leader who does not understand the pros and cons of engineering. Therefore, he does not have an accurate view of his team's strength and leads the team in the direction based on his assumption and belief not on the pragmatism. He is doubtful to deliver the promised service in time. Hence, another equally important aspect is that performing the same jobs as people to gain practical experience.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:22
“Because of recent advancements in business and technology, the overall quality of life in most societies has never been better than at the present time.”
Digital technology has spawned great advances in medicine and physics, help us to better understand the world, to enhance our health, and to prolong our lives. Perhaps most important, however, information technology makes possible universal access to information, thereby providing a democratizing influence on our curlture.
I have become connected with quite a number of people via email, including old friends with whom I fallen out of the habit of writing regular letters but with whom I now correspond regularly because of the ease with which email can be sent and delivered. Connect people with common interest
We can even mix a little work into our leisure time by taking our laptops and cell phones on vacation. This way, we can stay one step ahead in project at work, anticipating deadlines and staying in touch with co-workers and important clients. Moreover, leisure time has itself been enhanced by business and technology. Never before have we had so many diversions available, or so many leisure- and entertainment related businesses vying for our attention, we can obtain everything from airline tickets to a language course and holiday wardrobe via the internet, in the convenience of our home.
Some one may argue that internet breeds information overload and steal our time and attentions away from family community , also some machines calculator, make people so lazy, and less skilful to think by them self, it is true in some case, but with wisely useage , the convenience brought by such automated machine can overweight their disadvantages.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:22
“Technology ultimately separates and alienates people more than it serves to bring them together.”
Many people complain that we depend too much on computers, however, computers are continually improving our lives.
Although most people wish to live long lives, attempting to significantly extend the average human life span would be a mistake. If achieved, this would place an enormous burden on resources, lowering the quality of life for everyone.
• 有人说 live longer 就可以 created more，但是 create more 不等于 consumption 少， 现在 scare resource， nature 就是 short interest 和self motivate， scare source 就回减少quality of life for everyong， 而且人口增加以后 demand 有限， supply 增加。 只会优先选那些more creative thoughts， 而live older的人admittedly you undeniably valuable experience， but human society is countiuously， innovation is significantly for our improvement。
• Argue 说 如果famous scientists Einstein or Newton live longer they will 创造更多的财富， 但是，你怎么知道后来的人不能创造， 没有他们的创造我们不是也活的很好么？
• 诚然， 想要长寿是人之常情 human nature，just Invent作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:25
“Too many people think only about getting results. The key to success, however, is to focus on the specific task at hand and not to worry about results.”
The chief reason is that new discoveries are often unexpectedly made during routine processes. Such was the case of Alexander Fleming. For this very reason, if people focused only on results while ignored routine process, a vast number of discoveries would not be made.
The second thing that must be taken into consideration is that process also offers opportunities for refining old methods and inventing new ones. The empirical evidence supporting this point is overwhelming; yet one has no need to look further that the defense industry.
Focusing attention completely on the task at hand without reference to how that task is related to the end product would be virtually impossible to do. We would have no idea of what task to perform in the first place. As a result, the various tasks we engage in would be somewhat random, and in turn, no matter how diligent and careful we were in performing them, the likelihood of producing worthwhile or successful end products would be minimal.
To ensure good results, one should instead take a balanced approach to the task at head. By a balanced approach I mean paying attention to both the desired result and the specific tasks that are required to achieve it. House building provides a good example of this approach, the blueprint of the house not only contains a rendering of the finished product but also contains detailed drawings and descriptions of each of the specific components required to ensure a successful result. Moreover, the order of the tasks is determined with reference to this result.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-15 15:30
“Employers should have no right to obtain information about their employees’ health or other aspects of their personal lives without the employees’ permission.”Conflict between equity and privacy interests,
The business’s interest in maintain a stable, productive workforce clearly justifies right of access to certain personal information about prospective employees. Job applications can easily conceal personal information that might adversely affect job performance , thereby damaging the employer in terms of lower productivity and high turnover.
However, during the employment, the employees’ interests are far more compelling that those of the employers, for three reasons.
First, the employer has every opportunity to monitor ongoing job performance and to replace workers who fail to meet standards, regardless of the reason of that failure. Second, allowing free access to personal information about employee might open the floodgate to discriminatory promotions and salary adjustments. Current federal laws – which protect employees from unfair treatment based on gender, race, and marital status --- may not adequately guard against an employer’s searching for an excuse to treat certain employees unfairly. Third, access to personal information without permit raises serious privacy concerns, especially where multiple individuals have access to the information.
In sum. Ready access to certain personal information about prospective employee is necessary to protect business, however, once hired, an employee’s interest in equitable treatment and privacy far outweighs the employer’s interest in ensuring a productive and stable business.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:20
“No one can possibly achieve any real and lasting success or ‘get rich’ in business by conforming to conventional practices or ways of thinking.”
Type of business: in consumer-driven industries, innovation, product differentiation, and creative are crucial to last success: eg: unconvential catch attention, keep up with the changing tastes of consumers,
In technology, where there are no conventional practice or ways of thinking to begin with, companies that fails to break away from last year’s paradigm are soon left behind by the competition
In traditional service industries: finance, accounting, insurance and health care, lasting success and richness comes not to non-conventional practice, but rather to those who can deliver service most effectively within the confines of established practices, policies作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:20
“The value of any nation should be measured more by its scientific and artistic achievements than by its business successes.”
the subject of how the value of nation is measured has been open to much debate. Some argue that scientific and artistic achievements should be considered the most important when judging a country's value. For example, a country could be assessed in terms of the number of significant scientific inventions, or the number of famous artists it has produced over its history. However, the dominant view is that the value of a nation is more accurately assessed through measuring its business successes.
Firstly, there are inherent difficulties in measuring value in science and art. For example, the value of a painting by Picasso is open to interpretation, as each individual will use his or her own judgment to determine the painting's worth. In contrast, measuring business success enables a more objective assessment to be made, For example, the economic value of a country can be measured in terms of the Gross National Product or the Gross Domestic Product, both objective economic indicators measuring a nation's value in terms of total output of a country. Measuring value in terms of business success therefore is a more objective method compared to measuring the value of art or science.
In addition, it may be argued that science and artistic achievements can potentially be translated into business successes. For example, if the value of a significant technology invention like the computer microchip can be measured in monetary terms, scientific achievements like these can be measured in terms of their business success. Therefore, the impact of scientific achievements would potentially be captured by business measures such as total sales values or the value of exports and imports, which provides a more tangible measure of value compared to measuring the impact of scientific or artistic achievements alone.
Thirdly, measuring value by business success potentially captures a wider area where value exists, hence not only would it capture artistic and scientific achievements, but also achievements in the quality of life, health and education of a nation. For example, business success could result from a larger workforce from improved child mortality rates and increases average life expectancy rates. Also, improvements in the education system could produce workers with higher education and more skills which may lead to increases in productivity. Measuring value in terms of business successes enables the capture of other areas of societies apart from scientific and artistic achievements, hence producing a wider picture.
In summary, measuring the value of a nation in terms of its business successes is preferable to measuring value in terms of science and artistic achievements. Although translating scientific and artistic achievements into monetary terms requires further thought as business successes are more tangible to measure, more objective and encompasses other parts of society not captured by science and art, it is the preferred choice when measuring the value of a nation.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:21
Portrayals of violence have proven commercially successful in television programs, movies, songs, and other forms of popular entertainment. Therefore, those who create popular entertainment should continue to incorporate violence into their products.
Disney , whose productions continue to achieve great popularity and commercial success, without resort to an appeal to baser interest,
总结，用violance的东西也不一定能赚钱，而且还对社会的发展不利，所以不同意作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:31
The best teacher is the one who expect the students to challenge the popular ideas rather than accept them.
153． 学生们应该带着怀疑的态度对待他们所学的任何东西。他们应该质疑老师教给他们的东西，而不是消极地接受 skeptically and passively study
② 对学校里的学生，老师教授的知识可能现在看是正确的，而以后看会是错误的。也可能老师讲授的为过于理想化的东西，在实际生活中不能直接put into practice.如：经济学中的理性人假设，信息对程，市场完全竞争。但实际情况。。随时间推移，原来的质疑被证明是正确的，旧的理论被推翻或完善，则社会也就进步了。Skepticism is the starting point for creation.
③ undue skepticism might be counterproductive in educating young children.对于年龄小的儿童，有时被动接受是必要的，因为他们还缺乏辨别是非的能力，缺乏对一个问题的全面的认识。如：看电视，暴力（violence）镜头,可能怀疑老师说的友爱同学之类，不可任其模仿，应有老师引导。
身为学者，向社会学习，从生活中学习。对社会上某些司空见惯（quotidian）的情况、行为，应提出疑义。如：贝弗里奇（Beveridge）meditate英国社会保障状况（actuality）和问题，提出了著名的Beveridge Report ,led to the establishment of social security system, pave the way for other countries’作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:32
How effectively a student learn depends more on the quality of the other student than the quality of the teachers.
Secondly, learning and working frequently with groups, students will be more efficient and then make much more progress than that if they study solitarily.
Competition serves as an effective stimulant to urge and conduce to arouse students’ ambition in the process of study. and in turn, they have a better master of what they have learnt. In this respect, competition does promote students learning better.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:32
Celebrities are uniquely qualified to address social problems, because of their high status and access to resources.
No one can deny the crucial roles of public in the evolution of human civilization. It is the efforts of a large number of the common people that make it possible for those elite few to achieve the significant change in the progress of human society. For example, most of revolutionary which aimed at overthrow the old governments or obsolescent institutions, though modern people always only remember the few leaders of it, are made by a large amount of common people who may have no definite inclination on crude behaviors. Therefore, the people attending make the leaders to fulfill the final goal.
Though the few elites only take a small numbers in the historical events, they are the only people who have further understanding of the contemporary social condition and possess the capability to lead the large scale action. Some of them received the good education and have a clear recognition of the entire situation, and most important, can use the newspaper and numerous ways of media to propagandize their views and awaken common people's resent about the current dominators or present living conditions. For most of the historians, In addition, the elites also shares some features with the common people and also can be regarded as the presenters of the majority of contemporary people. For one thing, the leaders are after all human beings, people like the others, and only difference between these famous figures and common people is that the former have more conscience and courage than the latter.
The overemphasizing of the few elites also may have adverse effect on the study of the history. First of all, it is impossible for the famous figures that can presents the situation of contemporary community or group of people to shows every aspects of the society. Most of the accidents or events are caused by few problems which may intensively hampered the interest of the common people or some group of persons. For this reason, the study of the celebrities can only provide the researchers with the general view about one issue in the first stage of the study. By contrast, the research work base on the common people, though sometimes seem to very trivial, can indicate the detail information of some particular group in the society.
In sum, both the common people and famous figures are very important in the study of history and only through the research work base on these two groups can historians to get the complete information of the history.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:33
Public figures should avoid expressing opinions about things that they have not personally experienced or been directly affected by.
On the one hand, normally public figures have many followers who treat the public figures as model, if public figures express themselves in a nonresponsible and superficial way, their followers may act accordingly.
Moreover, public figures are just human being like each of us, they are, in most cases, good at one field. It is unrealistic to expect them to give correct answers to all public questions. It is highly possible they will give non-sense answer to a question they never experienced or heard of.
Admittedly, it is hard to prevent all public figures from doing so since the wide spreading internet, TV programs. The possible way lies in educate public to listen to public figures with caution.
• public service announcement
lead should speak for the people. So a lead does not qualify to speak for poors if he has never been poor in his life?作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:33
Employers should have the right to regulate employees’ unhealthy behaviour, both in work place and after work
每个人对于unhealthy behaviour的定义不一样， 如果确定employer的definition for “unhealthy”is right，
At work 可以regulate，The business’s interest in maintain a stable, productive workforce clearly justifies right to regulate employees behaviour， such as a drug issue， smoking at work company policy ，anti-smoking，smokers as a potential drain on company health-care costs.
For example, Weyco, an insurance benefits administrator in Okemos, Mich., launched a program in January 2005 to require mandatory breathalyzer tests for its 200 employees. The company said that any employees who tested positive for nicotine would be sent home without pay for one month, and if it happened a second time, they would be fired - no matter how long they'd been with the company.
lifestyle protection law
In some cases, employers' attempts to preempt costly health problems among employees have led to some seemingly extreme actions.
The problem you run into is: If you're terminating people based on their use of nicotine, what about red meat?" Phelan said. "Do you start doing lie-detector tests on what they had for lunch? Even if [employers] can't get sued for it, that doesn't necessarily mean they should be doing it. "作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:33
“Everywhere, it seems, there are clear and positive signs that people are becoming more respectful of one another’s differences.”
Some observers argue that nowadays people become increasing respectful for others’ differences everywhere.
In this view, they may point that people have regulated much more laws that prohibit the behaviors of discrimination and guarantee the implements of various people’s rights and in school students are instilled the ideology of equality and can acknowledge the nature of the divergence among human beings so that they would form the positive attitudes to the variance. Indeed, from this perspective, we can detect that people have made efforts to diminish negative weight of divergence among common citizens. However, they ignore some crucial aspects of this topic.
Anti-discriminatory laws in the areas of employment, housing, and education, now protect all significant minority groups racial minorities and women, the physically challenged and, more recently, homosexuals. we should never ignore that many such law itself is unfair for some portion of people. Moreover, signs of disrespect are all around us today. Merely examining the number of Black or women representatives in House or other government agencies, we would readily reach conclusion the law can hardly stand for their essential benefits, or they may sacrifice some other rights in order to gain a kind of right.
Ironically, the admission policy of some undergraduate or graduate colleges pays emphasizes on the afford capacity of international students when committees decide their admission, but seldom consider that of the residents. Such dual standards can be hardly regarded as positive signs of respecting others.
Finally, what appears to be respect for one another’s differences may in fact be an increasing global homogeneity—that is, we are becoming more and more alike.
In sum, on a societal level it is difficult to distinguish between genuine respect for one another’s differences on the one hand and legislated morality and increasing homogeneity on the other. Accordingly, the claim that we are becoming more respectful of one another’s differences is somewhat dubious.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:35
All groups and organizations should function as teams in which everyone makes decisions and shares responsibilities and duties. Giving one person central authority and responsibility for a project or task is not an effective way to get work done.
Thesis sentence: it is true that team work is the most familiar functional way that adopted by many groups and organizations. It is also true that every team member should share responsibilities and duties within the team. However, it is hardly true that the absence of central authority that enables everybody to make decisions is an effective way to get work done.
Compared with giving the responsibility for a task to one authoritative person, the sharing of responsibilities and duties among team members is a more effective way to get things done.
The allocated responsibility and duties give workers the feeling of being important and necessary that motivated them to fulfill their work.
The fact that anyone who dose not accomplish his or her assigned work thus affect the whole progress of the project could be easily detected, gives the necessary pressure to workers that guarantee the efficiency thus the completion of the project.
Nevertheless, that is not to say, people in a team should make decisions together.
The claim that letting everyone to make decision rather than giving one person central authority is a more effective way to get things down is unwarranted.
Everybody makes decisions totally no decisions.
Not everyone has acquired the essential abilities such as thorough analysis and foresighted prediction to make decisions.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:36
Employees should keep their private lives and personal activities as separate as possible from the workplace.”
The statement above is a controversial issue, which cannot be taken lightly. All of us, as human beings need private lives and need to do personal activities. However, when it comes to the office I believe that these things must be kept out of the work place because it not only can put the work we do in jeopardy but also can put the lives of those we love in danger. I will explain my view in the coming paragraphs.
First, the office is a place where ideas are laid on the table, where there should be no limits, where creativity should not have any boundaries, with the exception of a few limitations, legally and morally speaking. These ideas are things that must be nurtured to build upon them. They can then provide answers to questions and solutions to problems. But, those workers who come up with these thoughts could be told that it wouldn’t work by those they love, or that these thoughts are wrong for subjective reasons, etc… We can take aspiring actresses for an example, these people dream of becoming one of Hollywood’s elite, but if these people are always told that it’s a dream that is simply too impossible to achieve these potentially brilliant artists will not be able to show the world a possible Oscar winning performance.
Second, private lives should be left as separate as possible from the work place because in some cases we could endanger the people we love, in some cases. Take for instance, a police officer, a detective, or a Federal agent. These people do their jobs so well that in some cases their work could sometimes become personal in that these people would let their personal lives almost mix with their work. Eventually, these people either lose their loved ones or ruin the cases they’re working on putting even more people in jeopardy.
Admittedly, these two elements are essential to one’s creativity. Meaning, some people are inspired by those that they are surrounded by and the activities they’re involved in. However, employees can be inspired by these things while keeping these elements out of the office.
In sum, although people need private lives and personal activities to remain human and to enhance their creativity, these private activities must remain separate from the working environment to keep the work people do objective and to ensure that the task that has been done has been done well.
Whether Employees should keep their private lives and personal activities out of the workplace is a controversial issue. Others may state that when employees share their private perspectives that it creates cohesion in the workforce. However, in my view the risk of perceived offense and exclusion outweigh the potential benefits of fraternization in a company.
The chief reason for my view is that a group of employees may partake of a behavior that could be perceived offensive by another, even when the group is well meaning in its intentions. For instance, while I was employed at Electronic Arts I witnessed a group of employees partake in online gambling. Another individual in the same group felt pressured to join and instead chose to voice a complaint to upper management. Fortunately, this particular instance had a positive outcome. However, if the employee had felt seriously offended, then the company as a whole could have been legally liable for damages.
Another reason for my view is that personal activities may be a reason to form groups to exclude coworkers. For example, in a recent episode of the TV hit sitcom 'The Office'; Jim, the protagonist, transfers to another office where all of his coworkers spend the day playing video games. Unfortunately, Jim is not very good at video games and gets reprimanded by the boss, even though he is good at his actual job, a salesman. This clearly indicates how sharing a personal activity can be detrimental to the productivity of a workforce, by rewarding achievement in personal activities over job performance.
In sum, employees should withhold sharing their private lives and personal activities at work. In most cases, the potential liability for perceived offense and the risk of exclusion outweigh the benefits that could be gained.
1. Admittedly, I cannot deny that the author is on the correct philosophical side for his/her claim that employees should guard against allowing their personal life to impinge upon their job performance or intrude on coworkers.
2. Despite the above merit of the speaker’s claim, nonetheless, I find it problematic to overemphasize negative effects of person life on job performance. Sharing the personal interests and activities moderately may help build the positive relationship among colleagues. Engaging coworkers in occasional conversation about personal interests and activities can help build collegiality among coworkers that adds to their sense of common purpose on the job.
3. Another thing that must be taken into consideration is that the speaker seems to offers an either-or choice between private activities and job performance in protecting environment; and he prefers the latter, while fails to rule out possibility that adjusting these two choices in a middle ground might produce better results. Although these two roles of people’s life may conflict with each other, they are two aspects of one’s life and it is absolutely possible for us to strike a balance between these two. After all, you cannot discard your left hand only because your right hand is becoming more important.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:45
Optional words: Separate/ isolate/ exclude; Working atmosphere, morale, corporate culture.
By the same token, however, employees who are too aloof—sharing nothing personal with others—may be resented by coworkers who perceive them as arrogant, unfriendly, or uncooperative. The ill-will and lack of communication that is likely to result may ultimately harm the organization.
Personal activities should not be brought to one's workplace since they can reduce one's efficiency. Thinking about one's private life can distract one from his or her work. Talking about private life and doing personal activities can disturb other fellow workers.
An employee feels valued when the boss takes time to ask about the employee’s family or recent vacation. The employee, in turn, is likely to be more loyal to and cooperative with the boss. Company-sponsored social events—picnics, parties, excursions, and so forth—also help to produce greater cohesiveness in an organization,
The issue here is whether an international effort to regulate children’s access to adult material on the Internet is worthwhile. In my view, nations should attempt to regulate such access by cooperative regulatory effort. I base this view on the universality and importance of the interest in protecting children from harm, and on the inherently pandemic nature of the problem.
Adults everywhere have a serious interest in limiting access by children to pornographic material. Pornographic material tends to confuse children—distorting their notion of sex, of themselves as sexual beings, and of how people ought to treat one another. Particularly in the case of domination and child pornography, the messages children receive from pornographic material cannot contribute in a healthy way to their emerging sexuality. Given this important interest that knows no cultural bounds, we should regulate children’s access to sexually explicit material on the Internet.
However, information on the Internet is not easily contained within national borders. Limiting access to such information is akin to preventing certain kinds of global environmental destruction. Consider the problem of ozone depletion thought to be a result of chloroflourocarbon (CFC) emissions. When the government regulated CFC production in the U.S., corporations responsible for releasing CFC’s into the atmosphere simply moved abroad, and the global threat continued. Similarly, the Internet is a global phenomenon; regulations in one country will not stop “contamination” overall. Thus, successful regulation of Internet pornography requires international cooperation, just as successful CFC regulation finally required the joint efforts of many nations.
Admittedly, any global regulatory effort faces formidable political hurdles, since cooperation and compliance on the part of all nations—even warring ones—is inherently required. Nevertheless, as in the case of nuclear disarmament or global warming, the possible consequences of failing to cooperate demand that the effort be made. And dissenters can always be coerced into compliance politically or economically by an alliance of influential nations.
In sum, people everywhere have a serious interest in the healthy sexual development of children and, therefore, in limiting children’s access to Internet pornography. Because Internet material is not easily confined within national borders, we can successfully regulate children’s access to adult materials on the Internet only by way of international cooperation.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:46
Nations should cooperate to develop regulations that limit children’s access to adult material on the Internet.”
*The Internet is a worldwide computer network
View1: adult material on the internet may have terrible affect on children with immature point of view and judgment.
Evidence: pornographic material. tends to confuse children----distorting their notion of sex, and of how people ought to treat one another.
View2:since Internet has no national boundaries, nations should attempt to regulate such access by cooperative regulatory effort.作者: Malaysia 时间: 2010-11-18 10:46
100 “If a nation is to ensure its own economic success, it must maintain a highly competitive educational system in which students compete among themselves and against students from other countries.”
I don’t think it is a good idea to design an educational system that focuses mainly on competition. For although a little competition might produce desired results, in the long run too much competition will be destructive. Instead, I believe that our national economic success will be better promoted by an educational system that encourages cooperative learning among students, and with students from other countries.
Granted, competitiveness is an important aspect of human nature. And, properly directed, it can motivate us to reach higher and produce more, not to mention meet deadlines. But being competitive fixes our focus externally, on marking and beating the progress of others with whom we compete. Such external motivation can direct our attention away from creative solutions to our problems, and away from important human values like cooperation and fair play. Indeed, a highly competitive environment can foster cheating and ruthless back-stabbing within an organization, and ill-will and mistrust among nations. In the extreme case, competition between nations becomes war.
On the other hand, an environment of cooperation encourages us to discover our common goals and the best ways to achieve them. At the national and international levels, our main interests are in economic wellbeing and peace. In fact, economic success means little without the security of peace. Thus, global peace becomes a powerful incentive for developing educational models of cooperative learning, and implementing exchange programs and shared research projects among universities from different countries.
Moreover, research suggests that cooperative settings foster greater creativity and productivity than competitive ones. This has been shown to be the case both in institutions of higher learning and in business organizations. If true, it seems reasonable to argue that national economic success would be similarly tied to cooperative rather than competitive effort.
In conclusion, competition can provide an effective stimulus to achievement and reward. Even so, I believe it would be unwise to make competition the centerpiece of our educational system. We stand to reap greater benefits, including economic ones, by encouraging cooperative learning.
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