老詹GMAT考试句子改错宝典3 句子结构下篇

27已有 2093 次阅读  2010-08-15 11:01   标签GMAT考试  GMAT改错 

Sample Questions:

SC2.1.         Quasars, at billions of light-years from Earth the most distant observable objects in the universe, believed to be the cores of galaxies in an early stage of development.

 

A.       believed to be

B.        are believed to be

C.        some believe them to be

D.       some believe they are

E.        it is believed that they are

 

Answer:

句子结构

A 句子结构:名词,插入语,-ed分词短语。缺少谓语动词,句子结构不完整。

CDE 句子结构:名词,插入语,句子。垂悬的句首名词Quasars与主句相分离,功能不明确,句子结构不合理。

believe的习惯搭配:believe + that; believe sth. to be; believe sth.

错误用法:believe sth. sth; believe sth. that.

                    

SC2.2.         Computers are becoming faster, more powerful, and more reliable, and so too are modems, they are the devices to allow two or more computers to share information over regular telephone lines.

 

A.       so too are modems, they are the devices to allow

B.        so too are modems, the devices that allow

C.        so too modems, the devices allowing

D.       also modems, they are the devices that allow

E.        also modems, which are the devices to allow

 

Answer:

句子结构

A 句子1, and句子2,句子3.三个句子并列,应该在最后一个句子前面加上连词.

C 句子, and so too modems. so too modems句子结构不完整。so too后面必须加句子(使用倒装结构)。

D 句子1and also modems, 句子2。名词短语不能和句子1、句子2结构构成平行结构,并且句子1和句子2之间缺少连接词。

E 句子,and also modems. 句子和名词短语形式不对称,不能构成平行结构。

                    

SC2.3.         At ground level, ozone is a harmful pollutant, but in the stratosphere it shields the Earth from the most biologically harmful radiation emitted by the Sun, radiation in the ultraviolet band of the spectrum.

 

A.       in the stratosphere

B.        in the stratosphere, in which

C.        it is in the stratosphere in which

D.       in the stratosphere where

E.        it is in the stratosphere and

 

Answer:

句子结构

BD but后面是一个介词短语,句子,but + 介词短语 + 定语从句,句子结构不合理,这里的but后应加完整主谓结构。

不能改变原句的合理意思和重心

CE in the stratosphere原来充当从属性成分,CEin the stratosphere变为主句的内容,改变原句的重心。

                    

SC2.4.         While some propose to combat widespread illegal copying of computer programs by attempting to change people’s attitudes toward pirating, others by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling for the prosecution of those who copy software illegally.

 

A.       by suggesting reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling

B.        by suggesting the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others call

C.        suggest the reduction of software prices for decreasing the incentive for pirating, and still others call

D.       suggest the reduction of software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others by calling

E.        suggest reducing software prices to decrease the incentive for pirating, and still others are calling

 

Answer:

句子结构

A while引导状语从句,划线部分是两个代词并列,句子结构为:while…, others and others, 整个句子缺主句。

B 句子结构为:while…, others and + 句子,and连接代词和句子,句子结构混乱。

D 句子结构为:while…,句子 and others, and连接句子和代词,,句子结构混乱。

动作目的的表达

动作的目的关系用to do表示

C 动作的目的用for doing 表达,错。而且,for decreasing…修饰对象有争议,可能作the reduction of software prices 的定语,也可能作suggest…的状语。

                    

SC2.5.         The demand for airplane mechanics is expected to grow about ten percent a year in the next decade, largely because new federal rules calling for major modifications to older planes and because the air-lines are adding hundreds of new jets.

 

A.       new federal rules calling for major modifications to older planes

B.        new federal rules, which call for major modifications to older planes

C.        new federal rules call for major modifications to older planes

D.       major modifications to older planes called for by new federal rules

E.        major modifications to older planes are called for according to new federal rules

 

Answer:

句子结构

because引导原因状语从句,后面应该加上完整主谓结构。

ABD because后面都是名词短语,错。

主动优先原则

在同等情况下(主被动语态都可以接受),优先使用主动语态。并且E选项中被动语态的动作执行者应该用by表示,而不用according to 表示。

                    

SC2.6.         The filibuster, a parliamentary device that slows the snail’s pace that prevails even in the best of times in congressional sessions and tests the endurance of everyone associated with it, seems more and more an anachronism in the age of telecommunications.

 

A.       sessions and tests the endurance of everyone associated with it, seems

B.        sessions and tests the endurance of everyone who is associated with it, seeming to be

C.        sessions, tests the endurance of everyone associated with it, seems

D.       sessions, that tests the endurance of everyone associated with it and seems

E.        sessions, testing the endurance of everyone associated with it and seeming

 

Answer:

句子结构的完整性

B The filibuster,同位语,seeming to be…,句子缺谓语动词。

D The filibuster, a device that slows…, that tests…and seems…, 句子缺谓语动词。

D The filibuster, a device that slows…, testing…and seeming…, 句子缺谓语动词。

动词的并列

动词的并列必须用连词连接

C the filibuster, a device that slows…, tests…, seems…, 定语从句中谓语动词slowstests并列,缺少连词and

                    

SC2.7.         The energy source on Voyager 2 is not a nuclear reactor, in which atoms are actively broken apart; rather a kind of nuclear battery that uses natural radioactive decay to produce power.

 

A.       apart; rather

B.        apart, but rather

C.        apart, but rather that of

D.       apart, but that of

E.        apart; it is that of

 

Answer:

句子结构

分号前后必须是完整的主谓结构。

A 分号后是一个名词短语a kind of…,句子结构不完整。

代词指代

CDE 代词that没有指代对象。

sth. is not a nuclear reactor, but rather a kind of nuclear battery…

名词的否定形式:not A, but B; not A, but rather B; A, rather than B; A, not B. not…but rather… not…but…语气强烈。

                    

SC2.8.         Like many others of his generation of Native American leaders, Joseph Brant lived in two worlds; born into an Iroquois community and instructed in traditional Iroquois ways, he also received an education from English-speaking teachers.

 

A.       Like many others of his generation of Native American leaders, Joseph Brant lived in two worlds;

B.        Like many others of his generation of Native American leaders, living in two worlds, Joseph Brant was

C.        Like many another of his generation of Native American leaders, Joseph Brant, living in two worlds, was

D.       As with many others of his generation of Native American leaders, living in two worlds, Joseph Brant was

E.        As with many another of his generation of Native American leaders, Joseph Brant lived in two worlds;

 

Answer:

句子结构

逗号不能连接两个完整的主谓结构

BC Like sb. , JB was born into… and instructed in …(句子1),he also received…(句子2.“句子1,句子2”永远错。

D As with sb. , JB was born into … and instructed in… (句子1),he also received…(句子2.“句子1,句子2”永远错。

习惯用法

习惯搭配:one…another; each…the other; each other; some…others

E many another不符合习惯搭配

                    

SC2.9.         A representative of the Women’s Bureau of the United States Department of Labor contends that employers who offer benefits which permit that employees can balance home and work responsibilities better, realizing gains in attendance, recruiting, and retention.

 

A.       which permit that employees can balance home and work responsibilities better, realizing

B.        which permit employees balancing home and work responsibilities better will realize

C.        that permit employees to balance the responsibilities of home and work better will realize

D.       that permit employees a better balance between the responsibilities of home and work, thus realizing

E.        such that employees are permitted a balance between home and work responsibilities, and they will realize

 

Answer:

句子结构

A contend的宾语从句缺少谓语动词:主语是employers, who定语从句修饰employers, which定语从句修饰benefits that引导permit的宾语从句,realizing为非谓语动词。

D contend 的宾语从句缺少谓语动词:主语是employerswho定语从句修饰employersthat定语从句修饰benefitsrealizing为非谓语动词。

E and连接一个句子they will realize…和名词短语employers who…, 永远错。

习惯用法

permit sb. to do sth.

A permit + that从句,永远错。

B permit sb. doing 永远错。

E sb. be permitted sth. 永远错

                    

SC2.10.     El Niflo, the periodic abnormal warming of the sea surface of Peru, a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated in the western Pacific to flow back to the east.

 

A.       a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine allowing the warm water that has accumulated

B.        a phenomenon where changes in the ocean and atmosphere are combining to allow the warm water that is accumulating

C.        a phenomenon in which ocean and atmosphere changes combine and which allows the warm water that is accumulated

D.       is a phenomenon in which changes in the ocean and atmosphere combine to allow the warm water that has accumulated

E.        is a phenomenon where ocean and atmosphere changes are combing and allow the warm water accumulating

 

Answer:

句子结构

ABC 句子“EI Niflo 插入语,a phenomenon + 定语从句缺少谓语动词,句子结构不完整。

习惯用法

修饰phenomenon的定语从句的关联词只能使用in which

E where引导定语从句修饰phenomenon,不符合习惯用法,并且allow…doing也不符合习惯搭配,正确用法为allow…to do

                    

SC2.11.     The rising of costs of data-processing operations at many financial institutions has crated a growing opportunity for independent companies to provide these services more efficiently and at lower cost.

 

A.       The rising of costs

B.        Rising costs

C.        The rising cost

D.       Because the rising cost

E.        Because of rising costs

 

Answer:

句子结构

D 整个句子成为because状语从句的内容,缺少主句。

E because of + 句子,结构混乱。

主谓一致

谓语动词has created 决定了主语必须是单数名词或者单数名词短语。

B主语核心词位复数。

用词倾向性

动词rise(v.)有名词形式rise(n.),就不倾向使用the rising代替动作性名词rise

A the rising of costs不符合习惯表达。

                    

SC2.12.     In 1973 mortgage payments represented twenty-one percent of an average thirty-year-old male’s income; and forty-four percent in 1984.

 

A.       income; and forty-four percent in 1984

B.        income; in 1984 the figure was forty-four percent

C.        income, and in 1984 forty-four percent

D.       income, forty-four percent in 1984 was the figure

E.        income that rose to forty-four percent in 1984

 

Answer:

句子结构

分号前后必须是完整的主谓结构,逗号不能连接两个完整的主谓结构。

A 分号后句子结构不完整,错。

D 逗号连接两个完整的主谓结构,错。

并列句的省略

两个句子并列,第一句中有be动词或become,第二句中的be动词或become可以省略,同时,一些复杂的名词和形容词也可以省略。

C and前的并列分句使用实义动词represent,在第二个分句中省略实义动词,不符合并列句的省略原则。

修饰对象合理性

E that定语从句就近修饰incomeincome rose to forty-four percent逻辑意思不合理。

 

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