老詹GMAT考试句子改错宝典1 总论篇

41已有 3419 次阅读  2010-08-15 11:01   标签GMAT考试  GMAT改错 

GMAT Sentence Correction Introduction

 

Official Guide:

“Sentence correction questions present a statement in which words are underlined. The questions ask tester to select from the answer options the best expression of the idea or relationship described in the underlined section. The first answer choice always repeats the original phrasing, whereas the other four provide alternatives. In some cases, the original phrasing is the best choice. In other cases, the underlined section has obvious or subtle errors that require correction. These questions require tester to be familiar with the stylistic conventions and grammatical rules of standard written English and to demonstrate tester’s ability to improve incorrect or ineffective expressions.

                                                                                              - from GMAT Official Guide 11th

Correct Expression

    A correct sentence is grammatically and structurally sound. It conforms to all the rules of standard written English, including noun-verb agreement, noun-pronoun agreement, pronoun consistency, pronoun case, and verb tense sequence. A correct sentence will not have dangling, misplaced, or improperly formed modifiers; unidiomatic or inconsistent expressions; or faults in parallel construction.

Proper Diction

    An effective sentence also uses proper diction. (Diction refers to the standard dictionary meanings of words and the appropriateness of words in context.) In evaluating the diction of a sentence. Tester must be able to recognize whether the words are well chosen, accurate, and suitable for the context.

Effective Expression

    An effective sentence expresses an idea or relationship clearly and concisely as well as grammatically. This does not mean that the choice with the fewest and simplest words is necessarily the best answer. It means that there are no superfluous words or needlessly complicated expressions in the best choice.

 

Types of Incorrectness:

Grammatical Construction

SC1.1.         Often visible as smog, ozone is formed in the atmosphere from hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides, two major pollutants emitted by automobiles, react with sunlight.

             

A.     ozone is formed in the atmosphere from

B.      ozone is formed in the atmosphere when

C.      ozone is formed in the atmosphere, and when

D.     ozone, formed in the atmosphere when

E.      ozone, formed in the atmosphere from

      

Answer:

A 划线部分介词from后跟一个完整的主谓结构,错:hydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides是主语,two major pollutants emitted by automobileshydrocarbons and nitrogen oxides的同位语,react是谓语动词。介词后面只能加上名词或名词短语,-ing形式以及名词性从句,不能跟一个完整主谓结构。

C and连接主句和when状语从句,主从和从句不能够并列。

D 句子结构形容词短语,名词,-ed分词短语没有谓语动词,句子结构不完整。

E D,没有谓语动词,句子结构不完整,并且同A,介词from后面跟完整主谓结构,错误。

 

B为正确选项

                    

Aggreement

SC1.2.         Since 1986 enrollments of African Americans, American Indians, and Hispanic Americans in full-time engineering programs in the United States has steadily increased, while the number of other students who enter the field fallen

             

A.     has steadily increased, while the number of the students who enter the field has fallen

B.      has steadily increased, while other students entering the field have declined in number

C.      increased steadily, while there was a decline in the number of other students entering the field

D.     have steadily increased, while the number of other students entering the field has fallen

E.      have steadily increased, while that of other students who enter the field fell

      

Answer:

跳过enrollments之后的ofstates之间的部分(这一长串都是对enrollments的修饰)。本句的结构就极其简单。AB错,因为主语enrollments是复数形式,谓语应用have,而不是hasC中的increased所反映的时态不对,因为since 1986这一时间状语及句意都表明该句应用现在完成时态;E前半段是正确的,但在while从句中有两处明显的错误:(1)that指代不正确,主句中的enrollments是复数形式,避免重复的指示代词应用those,而非that(2)while从句中用了过去时态而非题意需要的现在完成时;D中前后都用完成时态,前面用have对应enrollments,后面用has对应the number of词组,因而是正确的。

请注意:在Dwhile从句中,students后的修饰词从A中的who从句改为了一个分词短语。这一变动使得D项更加简洁,强调enter的动作与has fallen的动作是同时的,而从句只能表示现在的状态

 

D为正确选项

                    

Verb Form

SC1.3.         In her recently published study, Rubin asserts that most women do not suffer from the “empty nest syndrome”; they are, in fact, relieved when their children depart.

      

A.     they are, in fact, relieved when their children depart

B.      and they are, in fact, relieved when their children departed

C.      they are, in fact, relieved when their children departed

D.     in fact, they are relieved when their children departed

E.      they are relieved at the departure of the children, in fact

      

Answer:

从未划线部分的assertsthat从句中的do not都表明了本句的基调即时态应为一般现在时,that从句中内容陈述一个研究的结果。因此,BCDwhen从句用departed是无根据的。E中有两个错误,in fact从不放在句末;at the departure of their children在此处属于表达不简洁,没有原句的when从句好。

 

A为正确选项

                    

Parallelism

SC1.4.         Doctors generally agree that such factors as cigarette smoking, eating rich foods high in fats, and alcohol consumption not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate genetic predispositions toward certain diseases.

      

A.     not only do damage by themselves but also aggravate

B.      do damage by themselves but also are aggravating to

C.      are damaging by themselves but also are aggravating

D.     not only do damage by themselves, they are also aggravating to

E.      are dong damage by themselves, and they are also aggravating   

 

Answer:

BCDE都不符合not only… but also…这一固定搭配

 

A为正确答案

                    

Rhetorical Construction

SC1.5.         Delighted by the reported earnings for the first quarter of the fiscal year, it was decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise.

      

A.     it was decided by the company manager to give her staff a raise

B.      the decision of the company manager was to give her staff a raise

C.      the company manager decided to give her staff a raise

D.     the staff was given a raise by the company manager

E.      a raise was given to the staff by the company manager.

 

Answer:

逻辑主语的合理性

-ed分词短语在句首,其逻辑主语等于句子的主语,即逻辑主语必须能执行分词短语所表达的动作。

只有C选项 the company managerD选项the staff可执行delighted by…,其余选项的句子主语和分词短语不能构成合理的逻辑搭配。排除ABE

主动优先原则

在主动语态和被动语态都能接受的情况下,优先使用主动语态。

C 使用主动语态。

D 使用被动语态,并且省略了原句中的实义动词decide,改变原句意思。排除D

 

C为正确选项

                     

Idiom & Diction

SC1.6.         Parliament did not accord full refugee benefits to twelve of the recent immigrants because it believed that to do it rewards them for entering the country illegally.

      

A.     to do it rewards

B.      doing it rewards

C.      to do this would reward

D.     doing so would reward

E.      to do it would reward

 

Answer:

标准书面语中,用“do + 代词 it / this / that / them / these / those”代替前文的动词短语,永远错;正确用法为:do so,副词sodo连用表示前面说到的那个动作。

ABE do it永远错。

C do this永远错

 

D是正确选项

                    

Logical Predication

SC1.7.         A new hair-growing drug is being sold for three times the price, per milligram, as the drug’s maker charges for another product with the same active ingredient.

      

A.     as

B.      than

C.      that

D.     of what

E.      at which

 

Answer:

不难看出本句想要表达的核心意思是:一种新的生发药品目前正以该药品生产商对包含相同活性成分的另一种产品要价的三倍出售。

A选项是不正确的,A选项的as在这里只能作为连词,所以句子的意思变为,一种新的生发药品目前正以该价格的三倍出售,就好像该药品的生产商对另一种包含同样活性成分的产品的要价一样。这个句子的逻辑意思是不完善的。

B选项than是不正确的,通常在GMAT考试中,than应该与比较级连用,句子中并没有任何比较级。

D选项的of what实际上是一种冗余,这里的what引导的名词性从句实际上是price ofof的宾语。所以这句话的意思就变成了:一种新的生发药品目前正以该药品生产商对包含相同活性成分的另一种产品所要的价格的价格的三倍出售。很明显的重复。

E选项的at的使用是很奇怪的,如果which指代前面的price并且引导后面的宾语从句,那么该从句中作用于which的谓词就是charge at,这个词组是不能做要价用的,如果是在前,即price at,而which引导名词性从句,这就有两个错误,一则price at不如price of,二则which及少用于引导名词性从句

 

C为正确答案

                    

 

Test Recipe:

A. 在从句中,对以下连接词和引导词要保持高度警惕:

1)     which(或代词it)绝对不可指代前面的整个句子;*

2)     because不可引导名词性从句;

3)     宾语从句中引导词that一般不能省略;

4)     if绝不可以引导名词性从句,如要表示是否,只能用whether引导;

5)     对不作为介词宾语的事物作限定性修饰,只用that而不用which。而which仅用于引导对介词宾语进行修饰的限定性从句和引导非限定性从句。

B. requiredemand等表建议、命令意义的词之后的that从句,要求用虚拟语气动词,即动词原形,不加should

C. 决对不可以单独使用that指代前面的单数或不可数名词,而一般是that of+n.结构指代或换用其他表达方式。

D. 不可以单独使用thisthese来指代前面出现的单数或复数名词,而要通过换用其他人称代词,或重复前面出现的名词或者改变句子结构来避免这样非正式且模糊的指代。如 sth. of this kind, like this /these等模糊表达均要用such+n.(n.即重复thisthese 指代的对象)来取代,意为这些…”。另外,在“such…that”结构中,such只修饰具体名词,而不修饰抽象名词( rapidityseverity)

E. 在通常使用的there be句型中,以下表达需要避免

1)     there could be done sth.;

2)     there be sth. done;

3)     there being+名词词组

4)     there was sth.(抽象的表动作的名词),如说there was a transmission万万不可。一般来说,GMATthere be 仅用于某处有某物,而此物是指具体名词,如knifestarwolf等,而非抽象名词conversion, relation等。

F. 表示某人有某种能力做某事,最佳答案的选择依据是can do be able to dohas(have) ability to dohas(have) a capability of doing…在选择时,有can do 就不用含be able to do 的选项,依次类推。*

G. 当需要举例时,用such as结构,而不用like

H. GMAT改错题中,ETS倾向于用主动语态而非被动语态,当用主动或被动语态的选项在语法和句意上都无错误时,选择用主动语态表达的选项,即主动优先原则

I.   GMAT中,关于being的以下使用需要避免

1)     being+n.

2)     being+adj.

3)     as being+n./adj./v.-ving.;

GMAT认为在以上表达中,being完全多余。

J.  当对一动宾结构进行替代时,不用do it, 一律用do so.;

K. 介词短语:on account of, because of, despite(in spite of ), as a result of之后只跟简单的各词短语。若其后跟的是动名词或名词所有格+动名词短语,或名词短语之后 用复杂的现在分词来修饰时,应改为与其相同意义的连词because, although等引导的从句形式。

L.  几种简单的表达方式:

1)     n. that is (are) adj. 必然要换为ad.+n.的名词短语结构,如a man who is poor的选项必错,而应选含有a poor man的选项。

2)     当表示谓语部分,尤其是表示实义动词的含义时,就直接用其动词形式表示,而不要用名词形式或形容词形式,如:be a cause就一定会被cause(动词)替代;be suggestive of 一定会被 suggest替代。

3)     一些常见词的替换方式:not any 一定会被no替代;that which一定会被what替代;having been done会被 done(限定词)所替代。

M.平行结构的最后一个成立之前必定有一个连词 and, or, neither, noras well as, 否则并列结构必存在问题。如:to do A. do B, do 的表达就必死无疑,正确表达应该是 to do A, do B, and do C to do A, to do B, and to do C;

N. 在平行结构中,对于不是而是的结构,GMAC更喜欢用rather than,而很少用instead of。实践中,若5个选项中存在这两个词的互换,直接在含rather than的选项中找答案 ,除非含rather than的结构有语法或逻辑错误,才可考虑 instead of

O. 实践中,此原则可转化为:不含此情态动词或类似语气词的选项均为错误选项,立即排除。若在题中的划线部分(A选项)中发现情态动词,那么在最后的正确答案中倾向于些情态动词或类似语气的词出现。

下篇:老詹GMAT考试句子改错宝典2 句子结构上篇

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发表评论 评论 (33 个评论)

 33 12
  • stream 2010-07-29 10:56
    好文章!赞一个!
  • hsWang 2010-07-29 11:03
    老詹出手 必属佳品 鲜花一朵
  • smartfay 2010-07-29 11:11
    这个是好东西。
    mark。
    期待下一篇。
  • James 2010-07-29 11:13
    stream: 好文章!赞一个!
    谢谢啦:)
  • James 2010-07-29 11:13
    hsWang: 老詹出手 必属佳品 鲜花一朵
    蒙各位抬爱
  • James 2010-07-29 11:13
    smartfay: 这个是好东西。
    mark。
    期待下一篇。
    你要好好学阿... 就要考试了
  • smartfay 2010-07-29 11:15
    James: 你要好好学阿... 就要考试了
  • myice 2010-07-29 11:37
    赞,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,
  • miwawa 2010-07-29 11:38
    划掉的部分,是不要看的么?
  • James 2010-07-29 11:40
    miwawa: 划掉的部分,是不要看的么?
    是不那么绝对的部分
  • miwawa 2010-07-29 11:47
    James: 是不那么绝对的部分
    "not any一定会被no替代",那any在什么情况下是强烈语气表达不能去掉呢?
  • James 2010-07-29 11:52
    miwawa: "not any一定会被no替代",那any在什么情况下是强烈语气表达不能去掉呢?
    对于这样的规则 实际上是表达的好坏而不是语法的正误 所以要批判地接受 哈哈哈
  • krystalzhang 2010-07-29 12:00
    哇, James又下大功夫了,这个一定要顶的!赞~~
  • James 2010-07-29 12:04
    krystalzhang: 哇, James又下大功夫了,这个一定要顶的!赞~~
    海豹你好:)
  • Nicole 2010-07-29 13:01
    狂赞!
  • Boyea.Z 2010-07-29 13:07
    DING~~
  • s 2010-07-29 13:53
    我只想知道谁投的路过,哈哈
  • James 2010-07-29 13:58
    s: 我只想知道谁投的路过,哈哈
    不知道  赫赫
  • smartfay 2010-08-04 19:43
    SC1.3.         In her recently published study, Rubin asserts that most women do not suffer from the “empty nest syndrome”; they are, in fact, relieved when their children depart.

    这句没加下划线:P 记得加上
  • 步步莲花 2010-08-12 14:48
    老詹啊 你的改错宝典除了总论以外的其他chapter能不能在标题前面加个编号啥的呀。方便查找。也方便review的时候看。
  • James 2010-08-12 14:58
    步步莲花: 老詹啊 你的改错宝典除了总论以外的其他chapter能不能在标题前面加个编号啥的呀。方便查找。也方便review的时候看。
    哦 好吧
  • James 2010-08-12 15:06
    步步莲花: 老詹啊 你的改错宝典除了总论以外的其他chapter能不能在标题前面加个编号啥的呀。方便查找。也方便review的时候看。
    已加
    不过话说回来..没觉得方便多少
    本来也是按照顺序发的 很容易找
  • 步步莲花 2010-08-12 15:24
    James: 已加
    不过话说回来..没觉得方便多少
    本来也是按照顺序发的 很容易找
    我存了word版本的...一篇一篇另存为的...有序号方便很多。
  • James 2010-08-12 15:33
    步步莲花: 我存了word版本的...一篇一篇另存为的...有序号方便很多。
    那就不知道在你保存的那个文件重命名一个序号么.....
  • 步步莲花 2010-08-12 15:41
    James: 那就不知道在你保存的那个文件重命名一个序号么.....
    不是这个问题 是我看你的日志 我点开一篇 然后老是搞混下一篇是哪个 上一篇是哪个
  • James 2010-08-12 15:46
    步步莲花: 不是这个问题 是我看你的日志 我点开一篇 然后老是搞混下一篇是哪个 上一篇是哪个
    ........ 我的日志没有顺序
  • 步步莲花 2010-08-12 20:13
    SC1.3
  • James 2010-08-12 21:59
    步步莲花: SC1.3
    ....
  • stream 2010-08-15 11:34
    smartfay: SC1.3.         In her recently published study, Rubin asserts that most women do not suffer from the “empty nest syndrome”; they are, in fact, reli
    smartfay真认真!
  • smartfay 2010-08-15 11:37
    stream: smartfay真认真!
 33 12
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