关于考点not only but also.及but

2已有 757 次阅读  2011-09-21 00:05
在句意符合递进的关系时,not only, but (also)要求绝对的平行。之所以also用括号表示是因为also可以省略,这以现象似乎在prep种很常见。所以在解题时,看清楚句意后,只需要机械的看清楚only或者but(also)后面的内容。另外:所有的正确选项中but 与also之间尚未发现有其他的代词等。下面有几个说明:

prep.
By pressing a tiny amount of nitrogen between two diamonds to a pressure of 25 million pounds per square inch, scientists not only were able to transform the gas into a solid, but they also created a semiconductor similar to silicon.
(A) not only were able to transform the gas into a solid, but they also created
(B) not only were able to transform the gas into a solid but also creating
(C) were able not only to transform the gas into a solid but to create
(D) were able not only to transform the gas into a solid but also creating
(E) were not only able to transform the gas into a solid, but they were also able to create

这里是省略了also。其他省略掉also的还有:

The skill and the precision of the Anasazi, ancient inhabitants of the Southwest, in measuring the movements of the Sun and Moon are evidenced not only at Chaco Canyon but at a number of other sites.

(A) in measuring the movements of the Sun and Moon is evidenced not only at 
(B) in measuring the movements of the Sun and Moon are evidenced not only at 
(C) in measuring the movements of the Sun and Moon is evidenced at not only 
(D) to measure the movements of the Sun and Moon is evidenced at not only 
(E) to measure the movements of the Sun and Moon are evidenced not only at

下面是几个只十分规则的例子:

51. Gasoline marketing is undergoing major changes as stations often not only add convenience stores but also combine with major fast-food chains to build complexes where customers can shop and eat as well as buy gasoline.

(A) not only add convenience stores but also combine with major fast-food chains to build
(B) not only add convenience stores but also they combine with major fast-food chains to build
(C) are not only adding convenience stores but also in combination with major fast-food chains they build
(D) add not only convenience stores, but also combining with major fast-food chains to build
(E) are not only adding convenience stores, but also in combining with major fast-food chains they build

80. Changes in sea level are not only a result of changes in water temperature, affecting water density, but of melting glaciers as well.
(A) are not only a result of changes in water temperature, affecting water density, but of melting glaciers as well
(B) not only result from changes in water temperature, which affect water density, but also when glaciers melt
(C) are a result not only of changes in water temperature, which affect water density, but also the melting glaciers
(D) result not only from changes in water temperature, which affect water density, but also from the melting of glaciers
(E) result from not only changes in water temperature, affecting water density, but as well as when glaciers melt

大全:The computer software being designed for a project studying Native American access to higher education will not only meet the needs of that study, but also has the versatility and power of facilitating similar research endeavors.
(A) but also has the versatility and power of facilitating
(B) but also have the versatility and power to facilitate
(C) but it also has the versatility and power to facilitate
(D) and also have the versatility and power of facilitating
(E) and it also has such versatility and power that it can facilitate

- GMAC曾出现过一个非递进关系但是使用了not only but also的题目。如下:正确答案是D,去掉了not also, 只剩下but it also. 这也是第一次在SC中出现but also之间有代词的。原句是倒装句,但是正确答案改变了倒装,but后用it(it指代systematic clearing of forests)是因为but在这里是一个连词。GMACprefer后面使用完整的句子。

GWD-8-Q20: 
Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also caused erosion and very quickly deforested whole regions. 

A. Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also 
B. Not only did the systematic clearing of forests in the United States create farmland (especially in the Northeast), which gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but also 
C. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States, creating farmland (especially in the Northeast) and giving consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but also 
D. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States created farmland (especially in the Northeast) and gave consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it also 
E. The systematic clearing of forests in the United States not only created farmland (especially in the Northeast), giving consumers relatively inexpensive houses and furniture, but it 

另:关于but+it的其他题目:
prep 20.The hognose snake puts on an impressive bluff, hissing and rearing back, broadens the flesh behind its head the way a cobra does, feigning repeated strikes, but, having no dangerous fangs and no venom, eventually, if its pursuer is not cowed by the performance, will fall over and play dead.

(A) broadens the flesh behind its head the way a cobra does, feigning repeated strikes, but, having no dangerous fangs and no venom,
(B) broadens the flesh behind its head the way a cobra does and feigns repeated strikes, but with no dangerous fangs and no venom,
(C) broadening the flesh behind its head the way a cobra does and feigning repeated strikes, but it has no dangerous fangs and no venom, and
(D) broadening the flesh behind its head the way a cobra does and feigns repeated strikes, but with no dangerous fangs and no venom, and
(E) broadening the flesh behind its head the way a cobra does, feigning repeated strikes, but with no dangerous fangs and no venom, and 

prep 41. The budget for education reflects the administration's demand that the money is controlled by local school districts, but it can only be spent on teachers, not on books, computers, or other materials or activities.

(A) the money is controlled by local school districts, but it can only be spent
(B) the money be controlled by local school districts, but it allows them to spend the money only
(C) the money is to be controlled by local school districts, but allowing it only to be spent
(D) local school districts are in control of the money, but it allows them to spend the money only
(E) local school districts are to be in control of the money, but it can only spend it

以下是来自国外网站关于该习惯法的官方总结
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
IN ACTUALITY, there is really only one base structure here, which is "not ... but ..."

that's actually the only TRUE set of parallel markers here. "only" and "also" are adverbs, and so ultimately function as modifiers -- i.e., they aren't necessary to the structure.
still, since "not only ... but also ..." is so common, you may want to memorize it separately -- but be aware that this is NOT the only correct form of this idiom.

the MOST reliable way to deconstruct this idiom is just to memorize "not ... but ...", and then ignore the adjectives "only" and "also" in deciding whether structures are grammatically parallel.
in deciding the MEANING of the structure, you can't dismiss "only" and "also" ... but that's a separate issue. see below.

--

EXAMPLES:
BE SURE YOU CAN UNDERSTAND WHY EACH OF THESE IS CORRECT OR INCORRECT

the writer was not only mortified by her mistake but determined to correct it in print.
--> CORRECT

the writer not only was mortified by her mistake but was determined to correct it in print.
--> CORRECT

the writer was not only mortified by her mistake but was determined to correct it in print.
--> INCORRECT

the small child was relieved to hear that the rustling under the bed was caused not by a ghost but by his pet cat.
--> CORRECT

the small child was relieved to hear that the rustling under the bed was caused not by a ghost but his pet cat.
--> INCORRECT

--

SO WHAT'S THE DIFFERENCE, THEN, WITH
"not only ... but also ..."
"not only ... but ..."
"not ... but ..."
?

the difference here is strictly one of MEANING.

the first two are pretty similar; the last one is TOTALLY different.

(1) "not only ... but also ..." is used to refer to two descriptions that REINFORCE each other (i.e., both have the same connotation -- two good things, two bad things, two helpful things, etc.), but are fundamentally independent.
ex:
this drug is not only an alertness aid, but also an antidepressant.
--> "alertness aid" and "antidepressant" are TWO GOOD THINGS that have basically NOTHING TO DO WITH EACH OTHER.
therefore, "not only ... but also".

(2) "not only ... but ..." is also used to refer to two descriptions that REINFORCE each other, but it's generally used when the second description EXPANDS or GOES BEYOND the first.
ex:
ryan not only competed in all the events, but won first prize in three of them.
--> note that "won first prize in three of [the events]" is an EXTENSION of "compet[ing] in all the events". these are not independent.

the above difference between (1) and (2) is subtle, and is therefore not terribly important. however, you MUST be able to tell those from the next one:

(3) "not ... but ..." is used when the FIRST thing is EXPECTED, ASSUMED, or PREVIOUSLY THOUGHT, but is REFUTED / CONTRADICTED / DISPROVED by the SECOND thing.
ex:
the snacks known as "french fries" were invented not in france, but in belgium.
--> the initial assumption, which is refuted, is that french fries are from france.

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